Chemotherapeutic agents reduce mortality and can prevent morbidity in a wide range of malignancies. These agents are, however, associated with toxicities of their own, and the treating physician must remain ever vigilant against the risk outgrowing the benefit of therapy. Thus, pre-treatment evaluation and monitoring for toxicity during and following administration is a fundamental tenet of oncologic practice. Among the most insidious and deadly toxicities of antitumor agents is cardiac toxicity, which in some cases may be irreversible. Early detection of cardiotoxicity allows the treating oncologist to redirect therapy or dose modify, taking into account the cost of a reduction in therapy against the potential of further injury to the patient. In these instances, the role of the cardiologist is to assist and advise the oncologist by providing diagnostic and prognostic information regarding developing cardiotoxicity. This review discusses noninvasive diagnostic options to identify and characterize cardiotoxicity and their use in prognosis and guiding therapy. We also review established protocols for cardiac safety monitoring in the treatment of malignancy.