The diagnostic power of physiological electric and magnetic signal detection has been universally recognized during the rise of modern medicine. Iconic technologies that illustrate this point well include the electrocardiogram (EKG), electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and, more recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These technologies have transformed medicine by providing invaluable diagnostic tools for the contemporary physician. Over the last few years there has been increasing interest in exploring other electromagnetic imaging modalities for physiological application. Many of these are non-perturbative technologies and include superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and atomic magnetometer, and electric potential sensors. This review objectively surveys a range of recent patents and journal articles relating to developments at the forefront of this exciting and already proven field of medical biotechnology.
Keywords: Electromagnetic sensor, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), magnetometer, electric potential sensors, imaging, electromagnetically diverse, biological measurement, non-perturbative detection, electric and magnetic fields, physiological monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging