Photovoltaics are amongst the most popular renewable energy sources and low-cost solar cell technologies are making progress to the market. Research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) usually based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has been extensively pursued, and the number of papers and patents published in this area has grown exponentially over the last ten years. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size and shape, crystallinity, surface morphology and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters to be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. This article will review the most recent research activities on nanostructured TiO2 for improvement of the DSSC performance.
Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells, nanoparticles, photovoltaics, renewable energy, surface chemistry, titanium dioxide, titania, Nano-TiO2, solar photons, photoexcitation, nanorods, Anatase, radiofrequency plasma, Artificial photosynthesis, mesoporous anatase, Nanoembossed hollow spherical TiO2, core-shell structured