It is important to know the localization of medicinal substance, Rb1, of Ginseng, Panax ginseng, in this plant in order to achieve efficient extraction of Rb1 or to culture producing cells. In this report, we describe the localization of Rb1 in various parts of the plant as determined by immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoelectron microscopies (IEM). Using IF, we show that Rb1 is localized to chloroplasts, peroxisomes and cytoplasm but not to vacuoles of leaf parenchymal cells. In the leaf stem, Rb1 is localized to the vascular bundles as well as vacuoles. In the root, vacuoles of parenchymal cells are stained at various intensities. Using IEM, gold particles showing Rb1 antigenic sites are present in the compartments stained by IF technique. In addition, Rb1 is localized in the sieve elements of the phloem and degrading primary cell wall of xylem, and in the root parenchymal cells Rb1 is associated with electron dense polymorphic materials but not in starch granules. Translocation and storage of Rb1 and effective utilization of leaves are discussed.