The aim of this study was to describe the status of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers and their association with metabolic and body composition components of HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome. In a cross-sectional study of blood samples from HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy syndrome (HIV+LIPO+ = 10), HIV-infected men without lipodystrophy syndrome (HIV+LIPO- = 22), and healthy subjects (control = 12), the following oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed: total hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP). In addition, antioxidant biomarkers, including total glutathione, uric acid, α-tocopherol, and metabolic components were tested. Dual-energy x-ray absorciometry (DXA) was used to measure the fat mass. The duration of HIV infection and the duration and type of highly active antiretroviral therapy were similar between the two HIV-infected groups. Higher levels of total hydroperoxide were observed in the HIV+LIPO+ (50 ± 33 H2O2/L) group compared to the HIV+LIPO- (19 ± 13 H2O2/L) and control (5 ± 5 H2O2/L) groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, higher levels of AOPP were observed in the HIV+LIPO+ (326 ± 173 μmol/L) group compared to the HIV+LIPO- (105 ± 92 μmol/L) and control groups (80 ± 20 μmol/L) (p < 0.05). Total hydroperoxide significantly correlated with insulin serum levels in the HIV+LIPO+ (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and HIV+LIPO- groups (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), while AOPP significantly correlated with insulin serum levels in the HIV+LIPO+ (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) and HIV+LIPO- (r = 0.54, p < 0.05) groups. Therefore, higher lipid and protein oxidation were found in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome, and both were associated with insulin levels.