Chromium is an essential micronutrient; chromium deficiency has been reported to cause insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The aim was to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on insulinresistance, other metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in people living with HIV. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two HIV-positive subjects with elevated glucose, lipids, or evidence of body fat redistribution, and who had insulin-resistance based on the calculation of homeostasis model of assessment (HOMAIR ≥ 2.5) were assessed. Subjects who were on insulin or hypoglycemic medications were excluded. Subjects were randomized to receive either 400 ug/day chromium-nicotinate or placebo for 16 weeks. Forty-six subjects, 23 in each group, completed the study. Fasting blood insulin, glucose, lipid profile and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Chromium was tolerated without side effects and resulted in a significant decrease in HOMA-IR (median (IQR) (pre:4.09 (3.02-8.79); post: 3.66 (2.40-5.46), p = 0.004), insulin (pre: 102 (85-226); post: 99 (59-131) pmol/L, p = 0.003), triglycerides, total body fat mass (mean ± SEM) (pre: 17.3 ± 1.7; post: 16.3 ± 1.7 kg; p = 0.002) andtrunk fat mass (pre: 23.8 ± 1.9; post: 22.7 ± 2.0%; p = 0.008). Blood glucose, C-peptide, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c remained unchanged. Biochemical parameters did not change in the placebo group except for LDL cholesterol which increased significantly. Body weight and medication profile remained stable throughout the study for both groups. In summary, chromium improved insulin resistance, metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in HIV+ patients. This suggests that chromium supplements alleviate some of the antiretroviral-associated metabolic abnormalities.