Substances that aid periodontal regeneration rely on accurate dissemination of active agents to their targets comprising connective tissue and bone. Healing is enhanced by incorporating a carrier agent and a time-release microshape containing the active agent for sustained release and improved uptake at the site of delivery. Chemotherapeutic agents range from antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and tissue regenerative agents such as platelet rich plasma, enamel matrix proteins, bioactive glass, soy bean based bone fillers, calcium phosphate and brushite cements. Cell recognition of tissue regenerative agents within a vehicular microcapsule for local delivery aid capture of relevant cells at the required site, enhancing its actions and sustenance. Gene based therapies for tissue regeneration promote expression of specific proteins which lead to a steady supply of targeted stimulatory agents over stipulated periods. Techniques of tissue engineering and gene therapy are combined to enhance selective protein expression and expansion of specific cell populations on biodegradable scaffolds acting as carriers for dispensing the required agents. These concepts demonstrate the relevance of optimal targeting and host response which can enhance or detract from the outcome. Future work would aim to provide more consistent results with greater accuracy in targeting and optimal dosing of tissue-active agents. This review also addresses recent patents related to the field.
Keywords: Healing environment, tetracyclines, NSAIDs, misoprostol, platelet rich plasma, enamel matrix proteins, bioactive glass, soy bean based bone fillers, calcium phosphate and brushite cements, scaffolds