A large number of chemical enteties, immunogens and topical medications, either synthetic or naturally occuring, against HIV have been brought into focus to combat AIDS epidemic. The three major classes of anti-HIV medications, leading to the development of synthetic drugs worldwide, belong to NRTs, NNRTIs and protease inhibitors. These have been discussed in detail with regard to HIV infected patients. A large number of natural products isolated from various plant species, flora and fauna have been described in detail. Some of these compounds have the potential for development as future drugs for cure of AIDS and could be helpful in replacement of combination therapy presently prevalent for treatment of HIV patients. Proteomics and Genomics are vital cores of biotechnology for prime consideration in lead generation aginst HIV. The recent aspects of development of combination therapy as well as the development of vaccines for treatment of AIDS, which are of current interest to clinicians, biologists and medicinal chemists also being discussed.