Chronic subclinical inflammation is frequently found in chronic degenerative diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and obesity. Much evidence suggests that inflammation is pathogenically involved in these diseases. The molecular mechanisms have been recently elucidated and the central role of the nuclear factor κB has been established in orchestrating the multiple cellular responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli. An interesting cross-talk between insulin and inflammatory signalling pathways could help to explain the relationship between inflammation and insulin resistance and to provide a therapeutic target as well. It emerged that a wide number of different signals converge on the nuclear factor, many of them being whose are of nutritional origin. This raises the possibility to modulate by diet, the inflammatory component of many chronic degenerative diseases.