The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (μg/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 μg/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction.
Keywords: Allium flavum, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative activity, extracts, flavonoids, phenols, Folin-Ciocalteu, ethyl acetate, Staphylococcus aureus