Brucellosis continues to adversely affect human health throughout the world. Acute and chronic osteoarticular manifestations of brucellosis include sacroiliitis, spondylitis, peripheral arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bursitis. Substantial clinical experience with the presentation, clinical course, and treatment of brucellosis exists in countries of the former Soviet Union, including the Republic of Georgia. The present article reviews the unique Georgian and Russian medical literature in addition to the English-language medical literature on the topic of osteoarticular complications of brucellosis. Special emphasis is placed on current diagnostic approaches for osteoarticular brucellosis, including imaging techniques and laboratory tests (bacteriology, serology, PCR).