Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in diet. These can be found in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices, etc.), plants and some herbs. These compounds are capable of protecting neuronal cells in different in vivo and in vitro models through diverse intracellular targets. The focus of this review is aimed at presenting the role of some polyphenols on the molecular mechanism involved in neuroprotection throught different biological processes like oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptotic neuronal death, regulation of the kinase signal cascade and modulation of Ubiquitin- Proteasome pathway. The study of the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroprotection and the molecular targets of natural polyphenols are important in the discovery of a valuable tool for new and more advanced therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Alzheimer disease, neurodegeneration, antioxidants, neuronal death, neuroprotection, Parkinson's disease, polyphenols, stroke, neuronal cells, excitotoxicity, apoptotic neuronal death, Ubiquitin-Proteasome, lipophylic, blood-brain barrier, reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH]), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Huntington's disease (HD), Central Nervous System (CNS), NO synthase (NOS), endothelial cells (eNOS), mitochondria (mtNOS), cyclo-oxygenase (COX), epigallocatechin gallate (EPCG), nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Mangiferin, oligodendrocyte, kainate receptors, querecetin, puerarin, naringenin, dopaminergic neurons, cytochrome, antiapoptotic proteins, synaptic protein synthesis, axonal, dendritic growth, hippocampal, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protein kinase C (PKC), β-amyloid fibrils, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β), extracelular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), Ubiquitin-Proteasome system (UPS), angiogenesis, astrocytomas, hemangioblastomas, craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas, medulloblastomas, Apigenin, Resveratrol, Curcumin, deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs)