The plant cell wall represents a vast carbon source for the induction of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The matrix of polysaccharides presents a great structural diversity, containing different sugar residues with the same or different bonds, branched to varying degrees and whose conformation may be like a straight ribbon, a twisted ribbon, an open helix or completely disordered. Cellulose and hemicellulose are the most abundant polysaccharides, accounting for as much as 35-50% and 25-30 of the dry weight of plant cell wall, respectively. The exploitation of plant cell wall polysaccharides requires an arsenal of enzymes with different mode of action. Enzymatic saccharification of plant cell wall components has potential applications in different fields, including fuel, solid waste disposal, animal feed, and paper/textile industry. The present review covers some aspects of plant cell structure and function, having in mind its potential as an inductor of enzyme systems with biotechnology applications.