Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in most developed countries. Gender-related differences have been found in the presentation, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of CAD in many studies. Compared to women, men present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction more often and have a higher prevalence of CAD. These findings indicate that gender may have an important influence on CAD. Appropriate diagnosis, prevention, recent patent inventions, and treatment will improve the care of all patients. It is therefore necessary to consider the differences in the features of ischemic heart disease between men and women when examining patients. Novel drugs for tailor-made therapy based on gender differences should be developed for the treatment of CAD in future.