The management of phosphorus (P) as a non-renewable resource is receiving increasing attention at the dawn of the new millennium. The importance of phosphate as a nutrient, the environment phosphate load in areas with intens livestock production and the depletion of the high quality phosphate resources are accentuating the need of a holistic and global phosphorus-resource management and understanding of the physiological roles, the biosynthesis and the breakdown of phosphorylated compounds in plants. Two important routes towards improved P-resource management are genetic engineering of plants towards improved P bioavailability and the application of microbial phytases to increase the bioavailability of phytate-P in monogastric animals. The present review gives an overview on these P-management approaches and discusses the arsenal of analytical techniques that can be used to analyze P and P-compounds. This analytical capability is an important determinant in the development of more advanced and more effective approaches towards Presource management.