The increasing development of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, thus necessitating a strong need to develop new antimicrobial agents. These new antimicrobials should possess novel modes of action and/or different cellular targets compared with the existing antibiotics. As a result, new classes of compounds designed to avoid defined resistance mechanisms are undergoing pre clinical and clinical evaluation. Microbial and phage genomic sequencing are now being used to find previously unidentified genes and their corresponding proteins. In both traditional and newly developed antibiotics, the target selectivity lies in the drug itself, in its ability to affect a mechanism that is unique to prokaryotes. As a result, a vast number of potent agents that, due to low selectivity, in addition to the pathogen also affect the eukaryote host have been excluded from use as therapeutics. Such compounds could be re-considered for clinical use if applied as part of a targeted delivery platform where the drug selectivity is replaced by targetselectivity borne by the targeting moiety. With a large number of antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates already approved or near approval as cancer therapeutics, targeted therapy is becoming increasingly attractive and additional potential targeting moieties that are non-antibody based, such as peptides, nonantibody ligand-binding proteins and even carbohydrates are receiving increasing attention. Still, targeted therapy is mostly focused on cancer, with targeted anti bacterial therapies being suggested only very recently. This review will focus in the various methods of antimicrobial targeting, by systemic and local application of targeted antimicrobial substances.