Malignant glioma is the most common and destructive form of primary brain tumor. Along with surgery and radiation, chemotherapy remains as the major treatment modality. The emergence of drug resistance, however, often leads to a therapeutic failure in the treatment of glioma, precluding long-term survival of the patients. A proteomic approach has recently been adapted for the mechanistic analysis of glioma drug resistance. The proteomic analysis of drug-resistant glioma led to the discovery of novel biomarkers that can be used for the prognosis of glioma as well as for monitoring the drug response or resistance of glioma. These proteomics-based biomarkers can also be a druggable target that one can exploit for successful glioma chemotherapy. In this review, recent reports on proteomic analysis of glioma from the perspective of chemoresistance are discussed with a focus on the proteome profiles of glioma cells that are resistant to the alkylating agent, 1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), as a prime example. Among numerous proteins that were up- or down-regulated in drug-resistant glioma cells, lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and integrin β3 (ITGB3) were identified as key proteins that determine the survival and death of glioma cells. LCN2, ITGB3, and other proteins identified by proteomic analysis could be utilized to overcome glioma chemoresistance.