Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important foodborne and environmental pathogen that can produce toxins in foods and cause infections in soft tissues. S. aureus that have developed resistance to the conventional antimicrobials are commonly called Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Their prevalence is believed to be due to the widespread use of antibiotics. Therefore, natural antimicrobials are in urgent demand as alternatives to conventional antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections. In this review, natural antimicrobials from plant, animal and microbiological origins are discussed, including their mode of action and mechanisms of bacterial resistance, major components, chemical structure, effectiveness, synergistic effects and future prospects.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Natural antimicrobials, S. aureus, toxins, cause infections in soft tissues., Methicillin-Resistant, Vancomycin-Resistant, life-threatening infections, staphylococcal gastroenteritis, staphylococcal food poisoning, abdominal cramping, nausea, muscle cramping, endocarditis