Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia, BG) is both a nutritious and healthy food with a distinctive bitter flavor, and it is also widely exploited in folklore medicine. This review focuses on the efficacies and molecular mechanisms of BG-induced anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor activities contributed by over twenty active components. The intent of this review is to provide comprehensive and valuable information for medicinal researchers, drug investigators, clinicians, and even patients with an interest in BG. In conclusion, BG is a cornucopia of health and it deserves in-depth investigations for clinical application in the future.
Keywords: Momordica charantia, tumor, human immunodeficiency virus, diabetes, medicinal application, bitter gourd, metabolic disorders, remedy, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, triterpenoids, charantosides, glucose tolerance, hypoglycemia, AMPK pathway