The antioxidative activities of the methanol extracts obtained from twelve commonly consumed wild edible mushrooms were investigated according to the phosphomolybdenum method, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating, O2˙-, DPPH˙, peroxide and H2O2 scavenging activity in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, and compared to standard antioxidant compounds such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in the extracts were measured. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were also evalated against gram (-) and (+) bacteria and yeast with disc diffusion method. Hydnum repandum, Lactarius delicious, Lactarius camphoratus, Lactarius piperatus, Ramaria flava, and Agaricus bisporus were greater than α-tocopherol and BHT on antioxidant activity. The lipid peroxidation of L. camphoratus and Lactarius volemus was excellent, and was 58.05% and 61.44% respectively. The DPPH˙ scavenging effects decreased in the order of R. flava > BHT > Macrolepiota procera > L. camphoratus > L. piperatus > Lactarius volemus > α-tocopherol and were, at 500 μg/ mL, and were 80.38, 76.61, 69.74, 61.55, 61.47, 61.09, 60.65%, respectively. All the extracts of mushroom also had the stronger chelating effect according to standards. The O2˙- scavenging effect of extracts of the mushroom species was in order of R. flava > Boletus edulis > Leatiporus sulphureus > M. procera > standards. L. piperatus, L. camphorates, L. volemus, A. bisporus, Chanterellus cibarius, L. sulphureus, H. repandum showed strong antimicrobial activity, especially on E. coli. H. repandum exhibited to be more effective on P. aeruginosa than other bacterial strains.
Keywords: Edible mushrooms, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, radical scavenging activity, chemical content, Hydnum repandum, Lactarius delicious, Lactarius camphoratus,, Lactarius piperatus,, Ramaria flava, Agaricus bisporus, ROS, atherosclerosis, lipid peroxidation, superoxide, catalase (CAT), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, Ganoderma lucidum, lycopene, pyrocatechol, Anthocyanins, Ascorbic Acid, TCA, DPPH, Staphylococcus, Candida albicans, ANOVA, anthocyanosides, -tocopherol, BHA, BHT, trolox, PMS/NADH-NBT, B. edulis, M. procera, R. flava, E. coli, sesquiterpenoids, epipolythiopiperazine-2,5 diones