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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Role of Antioxidants, Essential Fatty Acids, Carnitine, Vitamins, Phytochemicals and Trace Elements in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its Chronic Complications

Author(s): Vincenzo Triggiani, Francesco Resta, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Carlo Sabba, Brunella Licchelli, Shahram Ghiyasaldin and Emilio Tafaro

Volume 6, Issue 1, 2006

Page: [77 - 93] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/187153006776056611


Nowadays, the treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the variable use and combination of diet, antidiabetic oral agents (metformin, sulphanylureas, glynides, acarbose and thiazolidinediones) and insulin or its analogs, depending on the type of diabetes and the needs of the patient. The prevention and treatment of chronic micro- and macrovascular complications, on the other hand, is based on the achievement and manteinance of an optimal glycaemic control and requires the combined use of adjunctive therapy such as antihypertensive drugs and cholesterol-lowering medications. Furthermore, several herbal preparations and dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, essential fatty acids, lipid metabolism activators, vitamins and trace elements, are advertised and prescribed to patients as a useful adjuvant to a diabetic diet and conventional medications in order to improve glycaemic control and reduce the impact of chronic complications. In this regard, we have attempted to review the current concepts dealing with the usefulness of these complementary therapies in treating diabetic patients.

Keywords: reactive oxygen species (ROS), GAPDH, Vitamin E, Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), short-chain fatty acids, Ginkgo Biloba

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