Clinically relevant biomarkers exist in blood and body fluids in extremely low concentrations, are masked by high abundance high molecular weight proteins, and often undergo degradation during collection and transport due to endogenous and exogenous proteinases. Nanoparticles composed of a Nisopropylacrylamide hydrogel core shell functionalized with internal affinity baits are a new technology that can address all of these critical analytical challenges for disease biomarker discovery and measurement. Coreshell, bait containing, nanoparticles can perform four functions in one step, in solution, in complex biologic fluids (e.g. blood or urine): a) molecular size sieving, b) complete exclusion of high abundance unwanted proteins, c) target analyte affinity sequestration, and d) complete protection of captured analytes from degradation. Targeted classes of protein analytes sequestered by the particles can be concentrated in small volumes to effectively amplify (up to 100 fold or greater depending on the starting sample volume) the sensitivity of mass spectrometry, western blotting, and immunoassays. The materials utilized for the manufacture of the particles are economical, stable overtime, and remain fully soluble in body fluids to achieve virtually 100 percent capture of all solution phase target proteins within a few minutes.
Keywords: Biomarkers, stability, serum, urine, hydrogel, nanoparticles, stabilization, immunoassay