Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of Italian Mediterranean Diet (IMD), consisting of organic versus conventional foods, on body composition, and biochemical parameters in a healthy individuals and in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients, in order to decrease cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factor and the progression of renal diseases. Design: After providing a written fully informed consent to the study, 150 Caucasian Italian men were recruited: 100 healthy male individuals (mean age 44,66±13,98 years; range 30-65 years) and 50 male CKD patients (mean age 46,25±5,97 years; range 42-54 years). These patients were affected by stage 2 and 3 of Chronic Renal Failure according to the K-DOQI 2003. Usual dietary intake and physical activity, during the previous 12 months were estimated by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The following were measured at baseline and after consumption of conventional/organic 14 days IMD: Body mass index (BMI), Body composition, by Dual- X absorptiometry (DXA) scanner, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), serum phosphorus, glycemia concentrations, lipid profile, and microalbuminuria. Results: A significant reduction of total homocysteine (tHcy) and phosphorus blood values were observed in the studied subjects. Body composition analysis by DXA highlighted high significant differences between conventional (T0) and organic diet (T1) for fat mass parameter, expressed as kilograms and as percentage (p < 0.001). Improvement of lean body mass was observed in CDK patients (p=0.004). Conclusions: Our study clearly demonstrates that the Italian Mediterranean Organic Diet (IMOD), according to the “Nicotera diet”, was able to reduce tHcy, phosphorus, microalbuminuria levels and CVD risk in healthy individuals and in CDK patients.