K-Ras is a frequently mutated oncogene in human malignancies, and the development of inhibitors targeting various oncogenic K-Ras mutant proteins is a major challenge in targeted cancer therapy, especially K-Ras(G12C) is the most common mutant, which occurs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and other highly prevalent malignancies. In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing small molecule covalent inhibitors targeting K-Ras(G12C), thanks to the production of nucleophilic cysteine by the G12C mutant, breaking the "spell" that K-Ras protein cannot be used as a drug target. With the successful launch of sotorasib and adagrasib, the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting various K-Ras mutants has continued to gain momentum. In recent years, with the popularization of highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, fragment-based drug design strategies have shown great potential in the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting K-Ras(G12C), but with the increasing number of clinically reported acquired drug resistance, addressing inhibitor resistance has gradually become the focus of this field, indirectly indicating that such small molecule inhibitors still the potential for the development of these small molecule inhibitors are also indirectly indicated. This paper traces the development of small molecule covalent inhibitors targeting K-Ras(G12C), highlighting and analyzing the structural evolution and optimization process of each series of inhibitors and the previous inhibitor design methods and strategies, as well as their common problems and general solutions, in order to provide inspiration and help to the subsequent researchers.