Background: Tropolone and thailandepsin B are naturally occurring substances that are primarily isolated from fungi and plants, although they can also be found in certain bacteria. Tropolones belong to an important class of aromatic compounds with a seven-membered nonbenzenoid ring structure. Thailandepsins are a group of natural products that were initially discovered in the culture broth of the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis. Tropolonebased structures have been identified in over 200 natural compounds, ranging from simple tropolone derivatives to complex multicyclic systems like pycnidione and pyrerubrine A.
These natural compounds exhibit a diverse range of pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, phytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, anti-diabetic, enzyme inhibitory, anticancer, cytoprotective, and ROS scavenging properties. It is worth noting that thujaplicane, a compound similar to tropolone, displays all of the listed biological activities except for antimitotic action, which has only been observed in one natural tropolone compound, colchicine.
Tropolone can be synthesized from commercially available seven-membered rings or derived through various cyclization and cycloaddition reactions. Thailandepsin B, on the other hand, can be synthesized by macro-lactonization of the corresponding secoacid, followed by the formation of internal disulfide bonds. It is important to mention that thailandepsin B exhibits different selective inhibition profiles compared to FK228.
Objective: We investigated the HDAC inhibitory activity of the Tropolones and Thailandepsin B and discussed the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring compounds and their synthetic scheme.
Results and Conclusion: It has been observed that Tropolone derivatives act as isoenzyme-selective inhibitors of proven anticancer drug targets, histone deacetylases (HDACs). Some monosubstituted tropolones show remarkable levels of selectivity for HDAC2 and strongly inhibit the growth of T-lymphocyte cell lines. And Thailandepsins have different selective inhibition profiles than FK228. They exhibit comparable inhibitory activities to FK228 against human HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC6, HDAC7, and HDAC9, but less potent inhibitory activities than FK228 toward HDAC4 and HDAC8, the latter of which may be useful. Thailandepsins possess potent cytotoxic activities toward some types of cell lines.
Keywords: Tropolone, HDAC, isozyme-selectivity, thujaplicin, metalloenzyme, natural product, HDAC inhibitor, thailandepsin B, synthesis, biosynthesis, bacterial products, antiproliferative activities.
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