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Current HIV Research


ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Research Article

Cognitive Deficits: Verbal and Semantic Fluency in People Living with HIV and AIDS

Author(s): Ganka Ivanova*, Rakan Alhrahsheh and Kaloyan Kukov

Volume 21, Issue 3, 2023

Published on: 27 June, 2023

Page: [202 - 212] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X21666230613124240

open access plus


Background: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, the virus has taken millions of lives worldwide. The United Nations AIDS Fund’s statistics reported that deaths caused by HIVrelated conditions and AIDS were about 39 million from the beginning of the epidemic to 2015. The united global efforts to fight the virus are considerably changing the indicators, such as mortality and morbidity, but the challenges remain. The total number of people living with HIV in Bulgaria as of 12th May, 2015, was 2,121. As of 30th November, 2016, the official data reported 2 460 people living with HIV. As of 13th February, 2017, 2 487 individuals were HIV-seropositive. Approximately 60% of people with HIV are prone to developing cognitive impairment due to the infection.

Objective: This study aimed to know the level of cognitive deficiency, in particular, the verbal and semantic fluency of people living with HIV and AIDS.

Methods: In this study, a comparative analysis was carried out. The Stewart test was used to compare the average independent samples. For clarity, the average values, the test statistics, and the estimated significance levels are presented in the tables. Additionally, a statistical mechanism of factor selection was used by the forward stepwise method. The Wilks' Lambda statistic reported values between 0 and 1, with values close to zero indicating good discrimination of the model.

Results: According to this research, the HIV positives participants generated fewer verbs than the ones from the control group. The data were partially confirmed by the present study. There were differences in terms of both adjectives and nouns among people living with HIV and AIDS.

Conclusion: The study data proves that language deficits are detectable in neurocognitive testing of HIV. The overall hypothesis of the study has been confirmed. The language impairments are primarily qualitative and can be used as a marker for the initial and subsequent therapy assessment.

Keywords: Asymptomatic neurocognitive disorder, cognitive deficiency, HIV and personality, language deficit, verbal and semantic fluency, neurocognitive.

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