Background: Chelidonine is a potent anticancer against several cell lines. However, low bioavailability and water solubility restrict the clinical applications of this compound.
Objective: The aim of this research was to develop a novel formulation of chelidonine encapsulated in the nanoparticles of poly(d l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) employing vitamin E D-α-tocopherol acid polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (E TPGS) as a modifier to increase bioavailability.
Methods: Chelidonine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated using a single emulsion method and modified by various concentrations of E TPGS. Nanoparticles were recognized in terms of morphology, surface charge, drug release, size, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency to obtain the optimized formulation. The cytotoxicity of different nanoformulations in HT-29 cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. The cells were stained with propidium iodide and annexin V solution to evaluate apoptosis using flow cytometry.
Results: Spherical nanoparticles prepared with 2% (w/v) of E TPGS had the optimum formulation in the nanometer size range (153 ± 12.3 nm), with a surface charge of -14.06 ± 2.21 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 95.58 ± 3.47%, drug loading of 33.13 ± 0.19%, and drug release profile of 73.54 ± 2.33. In comparison with non-modified nanoparticles and free chelidonine, E TPGS-modified nanoformulations improved anti-cancer capability even after three-months storage.
Conclusion: Our results showed that E TPGS is an effective biomaterial for surface modification of nanoparticles, which can serve as a potential treatment for cancer.
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