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Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1386-2073
ISSN (Online): 1875-5402

General Research Article

New Tiaoxin Recipe Alleviates Energy Metabolism Disorders in an APPswe/PS1DE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Yiran Hu, Sanli Xing*, Yan Huang, Chuan Chen, Dingzhu Shen and Jiulin Chen

Volume 27, Issue 4, 2024

Published on: 23 May, 2023

Page: [621 - 631] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1386207326666230428112358

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a typical neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Until now, there has been no effective treatment available for AD; however, improving energy dysmetabolism, the key pathological event in the early stage of AD, can effectively delay the progression of AD.

Objective: This paper aims to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism of the new Tiaoxin recipe on early AD.

Methods: APP/PS1 mice were divided into a model group, a new Tiaoxin recipe group, and a donepezil group, and C57/BL mice were used for the control group. Mouse cognitive and learning abilities were tested using the Morris water maze test and a new object-recognition experiment. The 42 amino acid form of amyloid β peptide (Aβ1–42) content was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the senile plaque area was detected by thioflavin S staining, and the senescence- associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)–positive area was detected by chemical staining. Also, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) contents were detected using a biochemical method, and the cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) and silent mating–type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3) protein expression levels were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.

Results: Compared with those of the control group, the learning and memory abilities of the model group were impaired; the senile plaque deposition, Aβ1–42 content, and SA-βgal–positive staining area were increased; the ATP concentration, NAD+ concentration, and NAD+/NADH ratio were decreased; the CD38 protein expression level was increased; and the SIRT3 protein expression level was decreased. Following intervention with the new Tiaoxin recipe, the learning and memory abilities were improved; the senile plaque deposition, Aβ1–42 content, and SA-βgal–positive area were reduced; the ATP concentration, NAD+ concentration, and NAD+/NADH ratio were increased; CD38 protein expression was decreased, and SIRT3 protein expression was increased.

Conclusion: This study shows that the new Tiaoxin Recipe can improve cognitive ability and reduce the Aβ1-42 content and senile plaque deposition in APP/PS1 mice, which may occur through the downregulation of CD38 protein expression, upregulation of SIRT3 protein expression, restoration of the NAD+ level, promotion of ATP synthesis, mitigation of energy metabolism disorders.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, energy dysmetabolism, new tiaoxin recipe, NAD+, CD38, neurodegenerative disease.

Graphical Abstract
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