Generic placeholder image

Current Vascular Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-1611
ISSN (Online): 1875-6212

Review Article

Features of a Balanced Healthy Diet with Cardiovascular and Other Benefits

Author(s): Antonis A. Manolis, Theodora A. Manolis, Helen Melita and Antonis S. Manolis*

Volume 21, Issue 3, 2023

Published on: 03 May, 2023

Page: [163 - 184] Pages: 22

DOI: 10.2174/1570161121666230327135916

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Besides lack of exercise, obesity, smoking, and other risk factors, poor nutrition and unhealthy/ unbalanced diets play an important role in CVD.

Objective: This review examined data on all issues of the CV-health benefits of a balanced diet, with tabulation of nutritional data and health-authority recommendations and pictorial illustration of the main features of a CV-healthy diet.

Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant studies and reviews on diet and CV health.

Results: For a long time, there has been evidence, corroborated by recent findings, that pro-vegetarian diets have a beneficial influence on serum lipid levels, markers of inflammation and endothelial function, prooxidant-antioxidant balance, and gut microbiome, all probably contributing to reduced CV risk. Worries about the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets are circumvented by obtaining certain nutrients lacking or found in lower amounts in plants than in animal foods, by consuming a wide variety of healthy plant foods and through intake of oral supplements or fortified foods. Well-balanced diets, such as the Mediterranean or the Dietary-Approaches-to-Stop-Hypertension diets, provide CV-health benefits. Nevertheless, a broad variety of plant-based diets with low/minimal animal food intake may allow for a personalized and culturally adjusted application of dietary recommendations contributing to the maintenance of CV health.

Conclusion: Universal adoption of a balanced CV-healthy diet can reduce global, CV and other mortality by ~20%. This requires world-wide programs of information for and education of the public, starting with school children and expanding to all groups, sectors, and levels.

Keywords: Healthy diet, cardiovascular disease, mediterranean diet, vegetarian diet, vegan diet, DASH diet, plant food, animal food.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Virani SS, Alonso A, Aparicio HJ, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2021 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2021; 143(8): e254-743.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000950] [PMID: 33501848]
[2]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NHANES public use data files. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/
[3]
Masarei JRL, Rouse IL, Lynch WJ, Robertson K, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ. Vegetarian diets, lipids and cardiovascular risk. Aust N Z J Med 1984; 14(4): 400-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.1984.tb03603.x] [PMID: 6596047]
[4]
Kahleova H, Levin S, Barnard ND. Vegetarian dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2018; 61(1): 54-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2018.05.002] [PMID: 29800598]
[5]
Beilin LJ, Armstrong BK, Margetts BM, Rouse IL, Vandongen R. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure. Nephron J 1987; 47(1): 37-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000184551] [PMID: 3696348]
[6]
Wozniak H, Larpin C, de Mestral C, Guessous I, Reny JL, Stringhini S. Vegetarian, pescatarian and flexitarian diets: sociodemographic determinants and association with cardiovascular risk factors in a Swiss urban population. Br J Nutr 2020; 124(8): 844-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520001762] [PMID: 32418548]
[7]
Martínez-González MA, Gea A, Ruiz-Canela M. The mediterranean diet and cardiovascular health. Circ Res 2019; 124(5): 779-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313348] [PMID: 30817261]
[8]
Pallazola VA, Davis DM, Whelton SP, et al. A clinician’s guide to healthy eating for cardiovascular disease prevention. Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2019; 3(3): 251-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2019.05.001] [PMID: 31485563]
[9]
Chiavaroli L, Viguiliouk E, Nishi S, et al. DASH dietary pattern and cardiometabolic outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Nutrients 2019; 11(2): 338.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020338] [PMID: 30764511]
[10]
Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al. Meat consumption and mortality-results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. BMC Med 2013; 11(1): 63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-63] [PMID: 23497300]
[11]
Srour B, Fezeu LK, Kesse-Guyot E, et al. Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: Prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). BMJ 2019; 365: l1451.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1451] [PMID: 31142457]
[12]
Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173(13): 1230-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473] [PMID: 23836264]
[13]
Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts. N Engl J Med 2018; 378(25): e34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800389] [PMID: 29897866]
[14]
Martínez-González MA, Sánchez-Tainta A, Corella D, et al. A provegetarian food pattern and reduction in total mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100 (Suppl. 1): 320S-8S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.071431] [PMID: 24871477]
[15]
Chen YY, Chen GC, Abittan N, et al. Healthy dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease in US Hispanics/Latinos: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Am J Clin Nutr 2022; 116(4): 920-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqac199] [PMID: 36041183]
[16]
Georgoulis M, Georgousopoulou EN, Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB. Longitudinal trends, determinants, and cardiometabolic impact of adherence to the mediterranean diet among greek adults. Foods 2022; 11(16): 2389.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11162389] [PMID: 36010387]
[17]
Liang KW, Lee CL, Liu WJ. Lower all-cause mortality for coronary heart or stroke patients who adhere better to mediterranean diet-an NHANES analysis. Nutrients 2022; 14(15): 3203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14153203] [PMID: 35956379]
[18]
Matsumoto S, Beeson WL, Shavlik DJ, et al. Association between vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in non-Hispanic white participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. J Nutr Sci 2019; 8: e6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2019.1] [PMID: 30828449]
[19]
Sofi F, Dinu M, Pagliai G, et al. Low-calorie vegetarian versus mediterranean diets for reducing body weight and improving cardiovascular risk profile. Circulation 2018; 137(11): 1103-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030088] [PMID: 29483085]
[20]
Yi SY, Steffen LM, Zhou X, Shikany JM, Jacobs DR Jr. Association of nut consumption with CVD risk factors in young to middle-aged adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022; 32(10): 2321-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.07.013] [PMID: 35970686]
[21]
Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, Li G, Wahlqvist ML, Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab 2012; 60(4): 233-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000337301] [PMID: 22677895]
[22]
Kwok CS, Umar S, Myint PK, Mamas MA, Loke YK. Vegetarian diet, Seventh Day Adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2014; 176(3): 680-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080] [PMID: 25149402]
[23]
Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017; 57(17): 3640-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447] [PMID: 26853923]
[24]
Rosato V, Temple NJ, La Vecchia C, Castellan G, Tavani A, Guercio V. Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Nutr 2019; 58(1): 173-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1582-0] [PMID: 29177567]
[25]
Jafari S, Hezaveh E, Jalilpiran Y, Jayedi A, Wong A, Safaiyan A, et al. Plant-based diets and risk of disease mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022; 62: 7760-72.
[PMID: 33951994]
[26]
Yang ZQ, Yang Z, Duan ML. Dietary approach to stop hypertension diet and risk of coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019; 70(6): 668-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1570490] [PMID: 30810409]
[27]
Chen GC, Neelakantan N, Martín-Calvo N, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of stroke and stroke subtypes. Eur J Epidemiol 2019; 34(4): 337-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00504-7] [PMID: 30826941]
[28]
Chhabra JS, Juneja A, Etkin Y, et al. The effect of nutrition on stroke risk: A systematic review. Nutr Health 2022; 2601060221122218. Online ahead of print.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060221122218]
[29]
Becerra-Tomás N, Blanco Mejía S, Viguiliouk E, et al. Mediterranean diet, cardiovascular disease and mortality in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020; 60(7): 1207-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1565281] [PMID: 30676058]
[30]
Qian F, Liu G, Hu FB, Bhupathiraju SN, Sun Q. Association between plant-based dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes. JAMA Intern Med 2019; 179(10): 1335-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.2195] [PMID: 31329220]
[31]
AlAufi NS, Chan YM, Waly MI, Chin YS, Mohd Yusof BN, Ahmad N. Application of mediterranean diet in cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Motivations and challenges. Nutrients 2022; 14(13): 2777.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14132777] [PMID: 35807957]
[32]
Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, et al. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: A meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174(4): 577-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14547] [PMID: 24566947]
[33]
Ndanuko RN, Tapsell LC, Charlton KE, Neale EP, Batterham MJ. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Nutr 2016; 7(1): 76-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.009753] [PMID: 26773016]
[34]
Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Faulkner D, et al. A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction: Combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers in hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 2002; 51(12): 1596-604.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/meta.2002.35578] [PMID: 12489074]
[35]
Chiavaroli L, Nishi SK, Khan TA, et al. Portfolio dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2018; 61(1): 43-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2018.05.004] [PMID: 29807048]
[36]
Sanches Machado d’Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Zuchinali P, Corrêa Souza G. Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns in primary prevention of heart failure and changes in cardiac function markers: A systematic review. Nutrients 2018; 10(1): 58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010058] [PMID: 29320401]
[37]
Manolis AS, Manolis TA, Manolis AA, Melita H. Diet and sudden death: How to reduce the risk. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2022; 20(5): 383-408.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570161120666220621090343] [PMID: 35726434]
[38]
Tuso P, Stoll SR, Li WW. A plant-based diet, atherogenesis, and coronary artery disease prevention. Perm J 2015; 19(1): 62-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7812/TPP/14-036] [PMID: 25431999]
[39]
Manolis AS, Manolis TA, Melita H. Atherosclerosis: An Athero-Thrombo-Inflammatory Disease. Hosp Chron 2012; 7(4): 195-201.
[40]
Sureda A, Bibiloni M, Julibert A, et al. Adherence to the mediterranean diet and inflammatory markers. Nutrients 2018; 10(1): 62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010062] [PMID: 29320413]
[41]
Casas R, Castro-Barquero S, Estruch R, Sacanella E. Nutrition and cardiovascular health. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(12): 3988.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123988] [PMID: 30544955]
[42]
Aleksandrova K, Koelman L, Rodrigues CE. Dietary patterns and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation: A systematic review of observational and intervention studies. Redox Biol 2021; 42: 101869.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101869] [PMID: 33541846]
[43]
Hart MJ, Torres SJ, McNaughton SA, Milte CM. Dietary patterns and associations with biomarkers of inflammation in adults: A systematic review of observational studies. Nutr J 2021; 20(1): 24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00674-9] [PMID: 33712009]
[44]
Bujtor M, Turner A, Torres S, Esteban-Gonzalo L, Pariante C, Borsini A. Associations of dietary intake on biological markers of inflammation in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nutrients 2021; 13(2): 356.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356] [PMID: 33503979]
[45]
Cinegaglia N, Acosta-Navarro J, Rainho C, et al. Association of omnivorous and vegetarian diets with antioxidant defense mechanisms in men. J Am Heart Assoc 2020; 9(12): e015576.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015576] [PMID: 32515251]
[46]
Soltani S, Chitsazi MJ, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) on serum inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin Nutr 2018; 37(2): 542-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.02.018] [PMID: 28302405]
[47]
Neale EP, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: A meta-analysis. Nutr Res 2016; 36(5): 391-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2016.02.009] [PMID: 27101757]
[48]
Itsiopoulos C, Mayr HL, Thomas CJ. The anti-inflammatory effects of a Mediterranean diet: A review. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2022; 25(6): 415-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000872] [PMID: 36039924]
[49]
Moore E, Fadel A, Lane KE. The effects of consuming a Mediterranean style diet on associated COVID-19 severity biomarkers in obese/overweight adults: A systematic review. Nutr Health 2022; 28(4): 647-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060221127853] [PMID: 36131504]
[50]
Veerasamy M, Bagnall A, Neely D, Allen J, Sinclair H, Kunadian V. Endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease: A state of the art review. Cardiol Rev 2015; 23(3): 119-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0000000000000047] [PMID: 25420051]
[51]
Vorchheimer DA, Becker R. Platelets in atherothrombosis. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81(1): 59-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/81.1.59] [PMID: 16438480]
[52]
Vita JA. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: Effects on endothelial and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81 (Suppl. 1): 292S-7S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/81.1.292S] [PMID: 15640493]
[53]
Yubero-Serrano EM, Fernandez-Gandara C, Garcia-Rios A, et al. Mediterranean diet and endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease: An analysis of the CORDIOPREV randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med 2020; 17(9): e1003282.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003282] [PMID: 32903262]
[54]
Leikert JF, Räthel TR, Wohlfart P, Cheynier V, Vollmar AM, Dirsch VM. Red wine polyphenols enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and subsequent nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Circulation 2002; 106(13): 1614-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000034445.31543.43] [PMID: 12270851]
[55]
Manolis AS. Moderate intake of flavonoid-rich tea, green or black. Confers Cardiovasc Protect Rhythmos 2015; 10(1): 1-4.
[56]
Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin Sci 2002; 102(2): 195-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20010120] [PMID: 11834139]
[57]
Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, Aeschlimann S, Folts JD. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1999; 100(10): 1050-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.100.10.1050] [PMID: 10477529]
[58]
Restani P. Polyphenol-rich foods for human health. Nutrients 2020; 12(12): 3738.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123738] [PMID: 33291712]
[59]
Grosso G. Effects of polyphenol-rich foods on human health. Nutrients 2018; 10(8): 1089.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10081089] [PMID: 30110959]
[60]
Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(15): 1601-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra054035] [PMID: 16611951]
[61]
Ruiz-Saavedra S, Salazar N, Suárez A, de los Reyes-Gavilán CG, Gueimonde M, González S. Comparison of different dietary indices as predictors of inflammation, oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Nutrients 2020; 12(12): 3828.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123828] [PMID: 33333806]
[62]
Manolis AA, Manolis TA, Melita H, Manolis AS. Gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease: symbiosis versus dysbiosis. Curr Med Chem 2022; 29(23): 4050-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666211213112949] [PMID: 34961453]
[63]
Sata Y, Marques FZ, Kaye DM. The emerging role of gut dysbiosis in cardio-metabolic risk factors for heart failure. Curr Hypertens Rep 2020; 22(5): 38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-020-01046-0] [PMID: 32385705]
[64]
Tang WHW, Wang Z, Levison BS, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(17): 1575-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1109400] [PMID: 23614584]
[65]
Anselmi G, Gagliardi L, Egidi G, et al. Gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases: a critical review. Cardiol Rev 2021; 29(4): 195-204.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0000000000000327] [PMID: 32639240]
[66]
Satokari R. High intake of sugar and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory gut bacteria. Nutrients 2020; 12(5): 1348.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051348] [PMID: 32397233]
[67]
Khalil M, Shanmugam H, Abdallah H, et al. The potential of the mediterranean diet to improve mitochondrial function in experimental models of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 2022; 14(15): 3112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14153112] [PMID: 35956289]
[68]
Manolis AS, Manolis AA, Manolis TA, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease: Current status of translational research/clinical and therapeutic implications. Med Res Rev 2021; 41(1): 275-313.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/med.21732] [PMID: 32959403]
[69]
Finicelli M, Di Salle A, Galderisi U, Peluso G. The mediterranean diet: An update of the clinical trials. Nutrients 2022; 14(14): 2956.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14142956] [PMID: 35889911]
[70]
Hu Y, Willett WC, Manson JAE, Rosner B, Hu FB, Sun Q. Intake of whole grain foods and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women. BMC Med 2022; 20(1): 192.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02396-z] [PMID: 35681238]
[71]
Seidelmann SB, Claggett B, Cheng S, et al. Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: A prospective cohort study and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health 2018; 3(9): e419-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30135-X] [PMID: 30122560]
[72]
Trichopoulou A, Psaltopoulou T, Orfanos P, Hsieh C-C, Trichopoulos D. Low-carbohydrate–high-protein diet and long-term survival in a general population cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61(5): 575-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602557] [PMID: 17136037]
[73]
Noto H, Goto A, Tsujimoto T, Noda M. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One 2013; 8(1): e55030.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055030] [PMID: 23372809]
[74]
Chawla S, Tessarolo Silva F, Amaral Medeiros S, Mekary R, Radenkovic D. The effect of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets on weight loss and lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 2020; 12(12): 3774.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123774] [PMID: 33317019]
[75]
Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg EW, Flanders WD, Merritt R, Hu FB. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174(4): 516-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563] [PMID: 24493081]
[76]
Lim MT, Pan BJ, Toh DWK, Sutanto CN, Kim JE. Animal protein versus plant protein in supporting lean mass and muscle strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients 2021; 13(2): 661.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020661] [PMID: 33670701]
[77]
Naghshi S, Sadeghi O, Willett WC, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2020; 370: m2412.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2412] [PMID: 32699048]
[78]
Health Canada. Canada’s 2019 Dietary Guidelines: For Health Professionals and Policy Makers. 2019. Available from: https://food-guide.canada.ca/sites/default/files/artifact-pdf/CDG-EN-2018.pdf
[79]
Tharrey M, Mariotti F, Mashchak A, Barbillon P, Delattre M, Fraser GE. Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality: the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort. Int J Epidemiol 2018; 47(5): 1603-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy030] [PMID: 29618018]
[80]
Song M, Fung TT, Hu FB, et al. Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176(10): 1453-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182] [PMID: 27479196]
[81]
Sun Y, Liu B, Snetselaar LG, et al. Association of major dietary protein sources with all‐cause and cause‐specific mortality: prospective cohort study. J Am Heart Assoc 2021; 10(5): e015553.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015553] [PMID: 33624505]
[82]
Fabek H, Sanchez-Hernandez D, Ahmed M, Marinangeli CPF, House JD, Anderson GH. An examination of contributions of animal- and plant-based dietary patterns on the nutrient quality of diets of adult Canadians. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021; 46(8): 877-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-1039] [PMID: 33566737]
[83]
Bhupathi V, Mazariegos M, Cruz Rodriguez JB, Deoker A. Dairy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 2020; 22(3): 11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-020-1263-0] [PMID: 31997094]
[84]
Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(1): 3-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200101043440101] [PMID: 11136953]
[85]
Dehghan M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, et al. Association of dairy intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 21 countries from five continents (PURE): A prospective cohort study. Lancet 2018; 392(10161): 2288-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31812-9] [PMID: 30217460]
[86]
Cruijsen E, Jacobo Cejudo MG, Küpers LK, Busstra MC, Geleijnse JM. Dairy consumption and mortality after myocardial infarction: A prospective analysis in the Alpha Omega Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2021; 114(1): 59-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab026] [PMID: 33826695]
[87]
Wang XY, Liu FC, Yang XL, et al. Association of cardiovascular diseases with milk intake among general Chinese adults. Chin Med J 2020; 133(10): 1144-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000786] [PMID: 32433046]
[88]
Gao X, Jia H, Chen G, Li C, Hao M. Yogurt intake reduces all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality: a meta-analysis of eight prospective cohort studies. Chin J Integr Med 2020; 26(6): 462-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-3085-8] [PMID: 31970674]
[89]
Bendsen NT, Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A. Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65(7): 773-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.34] [PMID: 21427742]
[90]
Kiage JN, Merrill PD, Robinson CJ, et al. Intake of trans fat and all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97(5): 1121-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.049064] [PMID: 23553155]
[91]
de Souza RJ, Mente A, Maroleanu A, et al. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 2015; 351: h3978.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978] [PMID: 26268692]
[92]
Wang DD, Li Y, Chiuve SE, et al. Association of specific dietary fats with total and cause-specific mortality. JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176(8): 1134-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2417] [PMID: 27379574]
[93]
Brandt EJ, Myerson R, Perraillon MC, Polonsky TS. Hospital admissions for myocardial infarction and stroke before and after the trans-fatty acid restrictions in New York. JAMA Cardiol 2017; 2(6): 627-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2017.0491] [PMID: 28403435]
[94]
Manolis AS, Manolis TA, Poulidakis E, Melita H. Beware of the ailments of vitamin B12 deficiency. Hosp Chron 2013; 8(2): 51-7.
[95]
Woo K, Kwok T, Celermajer D. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 2014; 6(8): 3259-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6083259] [PMID: 25195560]
[96]
Pawlak R. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians? Am J Prev Med 2015; 48(6): e11-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.009] [PMID: 25998928]
[97]
Wolffenbuttel BHR, Heiner-Fokkema MR, Green R, Gans ROB. Relationship between serum B12 concentrations and mortality: Experience in NHANES. BMC Med 2020; 18(1): 307.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01771-y] [PMID: 33032595]
[98]
Bo Y, Xu H, Zhang H, et al. Intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality: A national population-based cohort. Nutrients 2022; 14(11): 2253.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14112253] [PMID: 35684053]
[99]
Goszcz K, Deakin SJ, Duthie GG, Stewart D, Leslie SJ, Megson IL. Antioxidants in cardiovascular therapy: Panacea or false hope? Front Cardiovasc Med 2015; 2: 29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2015.00029] [PMID: 26664900]
[100]
Mao Z, Prizment AE, Lazovich D, Bostick RM. Associations of dietary and lifestyle oxidative balance scores with mortality risk among older women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Eur J Nutr 2021; 60(7): 3873-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02557-5] [PMID: 33881582]
[101]
Manolis TA, Manolis AA, Manolis AS. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol: A double-edged sword/how to remain at the nadir point of the J-Curve? Alcohol 2019; 76: 117-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.08.011] [PMID: 30735906]
[102]
Manolis TA, Apostolopoulos EJ, Manolis AA, Melita H, Manolis AS. The proarrhythmic conundrum of alcohol intake. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2022; 32(4): 237-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2021.03.003] [PMID: 33762184]
[103]
Messerli FH, Hofstetter L, Syrogiannouli L, et al. Sodium intake, life expectancy, and all-cause mortality. Eur Heart J 2021; 42(21): 2103-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa947] [PMID: 33351135]
[104]
Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, et al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007; 334(7599): 885-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39147.604896.55] [PMID: 17449506]
[105]
Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, et al. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 2018; 39(33): 3021-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339] [PMID: 30165516]
[106]
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2018; 138(17): e484-594.
[PMID: 30354654]
[107]
O’Donnell M, Mente A, Alderman MH, et al. Salt and cardiovascular disease: Insufficient evidence to recommend low sodium intake. Eur Heart J 2020; 41(35): 3363-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa586] [PMID: 33011774]
[108]
Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: An essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev 2009; 67(11): 615-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x] [PMID: 19906248]
[109]
Zhong C, Miao M, Che B, et al. Plasma choline and betaine and risks of cardiovascular events and recurrent stroke after ischemic stroke. Am J Clin Nutr 2021; 114(4): 1351-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab199] [PMID: 34159355]
[110]
Wallace TC, Blusztajn JK, Caudill MA, et al. Choline. Nutr Today 2018; 53(6): 240-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000302] [PMID: 30853718]
[111]
Díez-Ricote L, San-Cristobal R, Concejo MJ, et al. One-year longitudinal association between changes in dietary choline or betaine intake association with cardiometabolic variables in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2022; 116(6): 1565-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqac255] [PMID: 36124652]
[112]
Shikany JM, Safford MM, Newby PK, Durant RW, Brown TM, Judd SE. Southern dietary pattern is associated with hazard of acute coronary heart disease in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Circulation 2015; 132(9): 804-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014421] [PMID: 26260732]
[113]
Marrone G, Guerriero C, Palazzetti D, et al. Vegan diet health benefits in metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 2021; 13(3): 817.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030817] [PMID: 33801269]
[114]
O'Keefe JH, O'Keefe EL, Lavie CJ, Cordain L. Debunking the vegan myth: The case for a plant-forward omnivorous whole-foods diet. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2022; S0033-0620(22): 00083-4.2022
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2022.08.001]
[115]
Herpich C, Müller-Werdan U, Norman K. Role of plant-based diets in promoting health and longevity. Maturitas 2022; 165: 47-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2022.07.003] [PMID: 35914402]
[116]
Bhupathiraju SN, Sawicki CM, Goon S, et al. A healthy plant–based diet is favorably associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among participants of South Asian ancestry. Am J Clin Nutr 2022; 116(4): 1078-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqac174] [PMID: 35731596]
[117]
Kouvari M, Tsiampalis T, Chrysohoou C, et al. Quality of plant-based diets in relation to 10-year cardiovascular disease risk: The ATTICA cohort study. Eur J Nutr 2022; 61(5): 2639-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-02831-0] [PMID: 35249127]
[118]
Katsi V, Papakonstantinou IP, Soulaidopoulos S, Katsiki N, Tsioufis K. Chrononutrition in cardiometabolic health. J Clin Med 2022; 11(2): 296.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020296] [PMID: 35053991]
[119]
Allaf M, Elghazaly H, Mohamed OG, et al. Intermittent fasting for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021; 1(1): CD013496.
[PMID: 33512717]
[120]
Moon S, Kang J, Kim SH, et al. Beneficial effects of time-restricted eating on metabolic diseases: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 2020; 12(5): 1267.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051267] [PMID: 32365676]
[121]
Meier T, Gräfe K, Senn F, et al. Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: A systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Eur J Epidemiol 2019; 34(1): 37-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0473-x] [PMID: 30547256]
[122]
Papadaki A, Nolen-Doerr E, Mantzoros CS. The effect of the mediterranean diet on metabolic health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials in adults. Nutrients 2020; 12(11): 3342.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113342] [PMID: 33143083]
[123]
Soltani S, Arablou T, Jayedi A, Salehi-Abargouei A. Adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutr J 2020; 19(1): 37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00554-8] [PMID: 32321528]
[124]
Bechthold A, Boeing H, Schwedhelm C, et al. Food groups and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019; 59(7): 1071-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1392288] [PMID: 29039970]
[125]
Dominique Ashen M. Vegetarian diets in cardiovascular prevention. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2013; 15(6): 735-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11936-013-0266-1] [PMID: 23928682]
[126]
Monserrat-Mesquida M, Quetglas-Llabrés M, Bouzas C, et al. Effects of 2-year nutritional and lifestyle intervention on oxidative and inflammatory statuses in individuals of 55 years of age and over at high cardiovascular risk. Antioxidants 2022; 11(7): 1326.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071326] [PMID: 35883817]
[127]
Lim S. Eating a balanced diet: A healthy life through a balanced diet in the age of longevity. J Obes Metab Syndr 2018; 27(1): 39-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7570/jomes.2018.27.1.39] [PMID: 31089539]
[128]
Butler T, Kerley CP, Altieri N, et al. Optimum nutritional strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (BACPR). Heart 2020; 106(10): 724-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-315499] [PMID: 32098809]
[129]
Zhubi-Bakija F, Bajraktari G, Bytyçi I, et al. The impact of type of dietary protein, animal versus vegetable, in modifying cardiometabolic risk factors: A position paper from the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP). Clin Nutr 2021; 40(1): 255-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.017] [PMID: 32620446]
[130]
Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2019; 140(11): e596-646.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678] [PMID: 30879355]
[131]
USDA; Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific Report of the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee: Advisory Report to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 2020.
[132]
Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: The EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 2019; 393(10170): 447-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4] [PMID: 30660336]
[133]
Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Vadiveloo M, et al. dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2021; 144(23): e472-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001031] [PMID: 34724806]
[134]
Visseren FLJ, Mach F, Smulders YM, et al. ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J 2021; 42(34): 3227-337.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab484] [PMID: 34458905]
[135]
Pérez-Martínez P, Mikhailidis DP, Athyros VG, et al. Lifestyle recommendations for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome: an international panel recommendation. Nutr Rev 2017; 75(5): 307-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nux014] [PMID: 28521334]
[136]
Dinu M, Pagliai G, Sofi F. A heart-healthy diet: Recent insights and practical recommendations. Curr Cardiol Rep 2017; 19(10): 95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-017-0908-0] [PMID: 28840462]
[137]
Lee YQ, Whitton C, Neelakantan N, van Dam RM, Chong MFF. Dietary patterns and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in a multiethnic Asian population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022; 32(9): 2093-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.06.014] [PMID: 35843801]
[138]
Mangione CM, Barry MJ, Nicholson WK, et al. Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults without cardiovascular disease risk factors. JAMA 2022; 328(4): 367-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.10951] [PMID: 35881115]
[139]
Patnode CD, Redmond N, Iacocca MO, Henninger M. Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults without known cardiovascular disease risk factors. JAMA 2022; 328(4): 375-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.7408] [PMID: 35881116]
[140]
Haslam DE, Chasman DI, Peloso GM, et al. Sugar-Sweetened beverage consumption and plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and lipoprotein particle size concentrations in US adults. J Nutr 2022; 152(11): 2534-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxac166] [PMID: 35918259]
[141]
Manolis AS, Manolis TA. Sugary beverages pose significant risks to cardiovascular and overall health. Rhythmos 2019; 14(3): 45-50.
[142]
Johnson RK, Lichtenstein AH, Anderson CAM, et al. Low-calorie sweetened beverages and cardiometabolic health: a science advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2018; 138(9): e126-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000569] [PMID: 30354445]
[143]
Wang DD, Li Y, Afshin A, et al. Global improvement in dietary quality could lead to substantial reduction in premature death. J Nutr 2019; 149(6): 1065-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz010] [PMID: 31049577]
[144]
Minotti B, Antonelli M, Dembska K, et al. True cost accounting of a healthy and sustainable diet in Italy. Front Nutr 2022; 9: 974768.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.974768] [PMID: 35967799]
[145]
Fernandez-Lazaro CI, Sayon-Orea C, Toledo E, et al. Association of ideal cardiovascular health with cardiovascular events and risk advancement periods in a Mediterranean population-based cohort. BMC Med 2022; 20(1): 232.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02417-x] [PMID: 35787272]
[146]
Lloyd-Jones DM, Ning H, Labarthe D, et al. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults and Children Using the American Heart Association’s New “Life’s Essential 8” Metrics: Prevalence Estimates From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2013 Through 2018. Circulation 2022; 146(11): 822-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.060911] [PMID: 35766033]
[147]
Manolis TA, Manolis AA, Apostolopoulos EJ, Melita H, Manolis AS. Cardiovascular complications of sleep disorders: A better night’s sleep for a healthier heart/from bench to bedside. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2020; 19(2): 210-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570161118666200325102411] [PMID: 32209044]
[148]
Lloyd-Jones DM, Allen NB, Anderson CAM, et al. Life’s Essential 8: Updating and enhancing the american heart association’s construct of cardiovascular health: A presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2022; 146(5): e18-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001078] [PMID: 35766027]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy