Generic placeholder image

Adolescent Psychiatry


ISSN (Print): 2210-6766
ISSN (Online): 2210-6774

Review Article

Sleep Disturbances in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Overview for Clinicians

Author(s): Mayank Gupta*, Nihit Gupta, Yuli Fradkin and Theodore Petti

Volume 13, Issue 1, 2023

Published on: 01 March, 2023

Page: [1 - 24] Pages: 24

DOI: 10.2174/2210676613666230126115646

Price: $65


Background: Sleep disorders in autism spectrum disorders (ASD/SD) are distinct, broad, and highly variable clinical entities that ubiquitously affect core symptomatology, development of comorbid disorders, and overall quality of life for affected children and families. High genetic predisposition and the presence of co-occurring disorders present significant challenges in assessment and appropriate interventions.

Objective: The study aimed to review the best available evidence and address the clinical gaps in the knowledge about sleep disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

Methods: The review provides a comprehensive literature search of 1622 articles and summarizes 110 selected for empirical evidence to methodically consider critical aspects of sleep disorders in ASD for informing clinicians of useful information.

Results: Clinicians have insufficient guidance and support to effectively manage sleep disruptions in ASD youth in practice. Prevalence of sleep disruption in ASD, close to 80%, is characterized by unique subtypes, including but not limited to obstructive sleep apnea, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders. Greater awareness of sleep disruption, its neurodevelopmental basis, scope, and impact allows for improved treatment and prevention efforts of these conditions, and is critical for clinical practice and future research. The bidirectional nature of disruptive sleep and ASD is considered a major area requiring further clarification.

Conclusion: Clinician-friendly screening tools are needed for everyday office practice to identify ASD/SD conditions and interventions, and mitigate harmful effects. Psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral approaches for improving and supporting healthy sleep hygiene, considered the first line of treatment, are detailed. The weak database for the use of psychopharmacologic agents is summarized, and the strength of prescribing prolonged-release melatonin for optimal results is described. The promise of other medications is discussed.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disturbances, insomnia, melatonin, parasomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, genetics.

Next »
Aldinger, K.A., Lane, C.J., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., Levitt, P. (2015). Patterns of risk for multiple co‐occurring medical conditions replicate across distinct cohorts of children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 8(6), 771-781.

[] [PMID: 26011086]
Aman, M.G., Arnold, L.E., McDougle, C.J., Vitiello, B., Scahill, L., Davies, M., McCracken, J.T., Tierney, E., Nash, P.L., Posey, D.J., Chuang, S., Martin, A., Shah, B., Gonzalez, N.M., Swiezy, N.B., Ritz, L., Koenig, K., McGough, J., Ghuman, J.K., Lindsay, R.L. (2005). Acute and long-term safety and tolerability of risperidone in children with autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(6), 869-884.

[] [PMID: 16379507]
Arnett, A.B., Rhoads, C.L., Hoekzema, K., Turner, T.N., Gerdts, J., Wallace, A.S., Bedrosian-Sermone, S., Eichler, E.E., Bernier, R.A. (2018). The autism spectrum phenotype in ADNP syndrome. Autism Research, 11(9), 1300-1310.

[] [PMID: 30107084]
Babson, K.A., Sottile, J., Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: A review of the literature. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19(4), 23.

[] [PMID: 28349316]
Baker, E.K., Richdale, A.L., Hazi, A., Prendergast, L.A. (2019). Assessing a hyperarousal hypothesis of insomnia in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 12(6), 897-910.

[] [PMID: 30896090]
Ballester, P., Martínez, M.J., Javaloyes, A., Inda, M.M., Fernández, N., Gázquez, P., Aguilar, V., Pérez, A., Hernández, L., Richdale, A.L., Peiró, A.M. (2019). Sleep problems in adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Autism Research, 12(1), 66-79.

[] [PMID: 30273974]
Ballester-Navarro, P., Martínez-Madrid, M.J., Javaloyes-Sanchís, A., Belda-Cantó, C., Aguilar, V., Inda, M.M., Richdale, A.L., Muriel, J., Morales, D., Peiró, A.M. (2021). Interplay of circadian clock and melatonin pathway gene variants in adults with autism, intellectual disability and sleep problems. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 81, 101715.

Banaschewski, T., Bruni, O., Fuentes, J., Hill, C.M., Hvolby, A., Posserud, M-B. (2021). Practice tools for screening and monitoring insomnia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52(8), 3758-3768.

[] [PMID: 34463899]
Benabou, M., Rolland, T., Leblond, C.S., Millot, G.A., Huguet, G., Delorme, R., Leboyer, M., Pagan, C., Callebert, J., Maronde, E., Bourgeron, T. (2017). Heritability of the melatonin synthesis variability in autism spectrum disorders. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 17746.

[] [PMID: 29255243]
Bernier, R., Golzio, C., Xiong, B., Stessman, H.A., Coe, B.P., Penn, O., Witherspoon, K., Gerdts, J., Baker, C., Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T., Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J.H., Fichera, M., Bosco, P., Buono, S., Alberti, A., Failla, P., Peeters, H., Steyaert, J., Vissers, L.E.L.M., Francescatto, L., Mefford, H.C., Rosenfeld, J.A., Bakken, T., O’Roak, B.J., Pawlus, M., Moon, R., Shendure, J., Amaral, D.G., Lein, E., Rankin, J., Romano, C., de Vries, B.B.A., Katsanis, N., Eichler, E.E. (2014). Disruptive CHD8 mutations define a subtype of autism early in development. Cell, 158(2), 263-276.

[] [PMID: 24998929]
Besag, F.M.C., Vasey, M.J., Lao, K.S.J., Wong, I.C.K. (2019). Adverse events associated with melatonin for the treatment of primary or secondary sleep disorders: A systematic review. CNS Drugs, 33(12), 1167-1186.

[] [PMID: 31722088]
Blackmer, A.B., Feinstein, J.A. (2016). Management of sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A review. Pharmacotherapy, 36(1), 84-98.

[] [PMID: 26799351]
Butera, C., Ring, P., Sideris, J., Jayashankar, A., Kilroy, E., Harrison, L., Cermak, S., Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2020). Impact of sensory processing on school performance outcomes in high functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Mind, Brain, and Education, 14(3), 243-254.

[] [PMID: 34367324]
Calhoun, S.L., Pearl, A.M., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Durica, K.C., Mayes, S.D., Murray, M.J. (2020). Sleep disturbances increase the impact of working memory deficits on learning problems in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(5), 1701-1713.

[] [PMID: 30788649]
Carmassi, C., Palagini, L., Caruso, D., Masci, I., Nobili, L., Vita, A., Dell’Osso, L. (2019). Systematic review of sleep disturbances and circadian sleep desynchronization in autism spectrum disorder: Toward an integrative model of a self-reinforcing loop. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 366.

[] [PMID: 31244687]
Charrier, A., Olliac, B., Roubertoux, P., Tordjman, S. (2017). Clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms: Their role in the development of psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(5), 938.

[] [PMID: 28468274]
Chen, H., Yang, T., Chen, J., Chen, L., Dai, Y., Zhang, J., Li, L., Jia, F., Wu, L., Hao, Y., Ke, X., Yi, M., Hong, Q., Chen, J., Fang, S., Wang, Y., Wang, Q., Jin, C., Li, T. (2021). Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: A multicenter survey. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 406.

[] [PMID: 34399715]
Corsi-Cabrera, M., Velasco, F., del Río-Portilla, Y., Armony, J.L., Trejo-Martínez, D., Guevara, M.A., Velasco, A.L. (2016). Human amygdala activation during rapid eye movements of rapid eye movement sleep: an intracranial study. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(5), 576-582.

[] [PMID: 27146713]
Cortesi, F., Giannotti, F., Sebastiani, T., Panunzi, S., Valente, D. (2012). Controlled-release melatonin, singly and combined with cognitive behavioural therapy, for persistent insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Sleep Research, 21(6), 700-709.

[] [PMID: 22616853]
Crane, B.R., Young, M.W. (2014). Interactive features of proteins composing eukaryotic circadian clocks. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 83(1), 191-219.

[] [PMID: 24905781]
Cuomo, B.M., Vaz, S., Lee, E.A.L., Thompson, C., Rogerson, J.M., Falkmer, T. (2017). Effectiveness of sleep-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-synthesis. Pharmacotherapy, 37(5), 555-578.

[] [PMID: 28258648]
Dardente, H., Dardente, H., Cermakian, N. (2007). Molecular circadian rhythms in central and peripheral clocks in mammals. Chronobiology International, 24(2), 195-213.

[] [PMID: 17453843]
De Gennaro, L., Marzano, C., Fratello, F., Moroni, F., Pellicciari, M.C., Ferlazzo, F., Costa, S., Couyoumdjian, A., Curcio, G., Sforza, E., Malafosse, A., Finelli, L.A., Pasqualetti, P., Ferrara, M., Bertini, M., Rossini, P.M. (2008). The electroencephalographic fingerprint of sleep is genetically determined: A twin study. Annals of Neurology, 64(4), 455-460.

[] [PMID: 18688819]
Dellapiazza, F., Michelon, C., Oreve, M.J., Robel, L., Schoenberger, M., Chatel, C., Vesperini, S., Maffre, T., Schmidt, R., Blanc, N., Vernhet, C., Picot, M.C., Baghdadli, A. (2020). The impact of atypical sensory processing on adaptive functioning and maladaptive behaviors in autism spectrum disorder during childhood: Results from the ELENA Cohort. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(6), 2142-2152.

[] [PMID: 30868365]
DelRosso, L.M., Yi, T., Chan, J.H.M., Wrede, J.E., Lockhart, C.T., Ferri, R. (2019). Determinants of ferritin response to oral iron supplementation in children with sleep movement disorders. Sleep, 43(3), zsz234.

[] [PMID: 31563958]
Doshi-Velez, F., Ge, Y., Kohane, I. (2014). Comorbidity clusters in autism spectrum disorders: An electronic health record time-series analysis. Pediatrics, 133(1), e54-e63.

[] [PMID: 24323995]
Earl, R.K., Ward, T., Gerdts, J., Eichler, E.E., Bernier, R.A., Hudac, C.M. (2021). Sleep problems in children with ASD and gene disrupting mutations. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 182(5), 317-334.

[] [PMID: 33998396]
Eilam-Stock, T., Wu, T., Spagna, A., Egan, L.J., Fan, J. (2016). Neuroanatomical alterations in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 237.

[] [PMID: 27313505]
Figueiro, M.G., Wood, B., Plitnick, B., Rea, M.S. (2011). The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college students. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 32(2), 158-163.
[PMID: 21552190]
Fleury-Teixeira, P., Caixeta, F.V., Ramires da Silva, L.C., Brasil-Neto, J.P., Malcher-Lopes, R. (2019). Effects of CBD-enriched Cannabis sativa extract on autism spectrum disorder symptoms: An observational study of 18 participants undergoing compassionate use. Frontiers in Neurology, 10, 1145.

[] [PMID: 31736860]
Furfaro, H. (2020). Sleep problems in autism, explained. Spectrum | Autism Research News. Available from:
Gabriele, S., Sacco, R., Persico, A.M. (2014). Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(6), 919-929.

[] [PMID: 24613076]
Geoffray, M-M., Nicolas, A., Speranza, M., Georgieff, N. (2016). Are circadian rhythms new pathways to understand autism spectrum disorder? Journal of Physiology-Paris, 110(4) (4 Pt B), 434-438.

[] [PMID: 28625682]
Goldman, S.E., Alder, M.L., Burgess, H.J., Corbett, B.A., Hundley, R., Wofford, D., Fawkes, D.B., Wang, L., Laudenslager, M.L., Malow, B.A. (2017). Characterizing sleep in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(6), 1682-1695.

[] [PMID: 28286917]
Goldman, S.E., McGrew, S., Johnson, K.P., Richdale, A.L., Clemons, T., Malow, B.A. (2011). Sleep is associated with problem behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1223-1229.

Goldman, S.E., Surdyka, K., Cuevas, R., Adkins, K., Wang, L., Malow, B.A. (2009). Defining the sleep phenotype in children with autism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 34(5), 560-573.

[] [PMID: 20183719]
Gozal, D. (2008). Obstructive sleep apnea in children: Implications for the developing central nervous system. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 15(2), 100-106.

[] [PMID: 18555196]
Gunes, S., Ekinci, O., Feyzioglu, A., Ekinci, N., Kalinli, M. (2019). Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: Clinical correlates and the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 763-771.

[] [PMID: 31040675]
Hayashi, Y., Kashiwagi, M., Yasuda, K., Ando, R., Kanuka, M., Sakai, K., Itohara, S. (2015). Cells of a common developmental origin regulate REM/non-REM sleep and wakefulness in mice. Science, 350(6263), 957-961.

[] [PMID: 26494173]
Hill, A.P., Zuckerman, K.E., Fombonne, E. (2015). Obesity and autism. Pediatrics, 136(6), 1051-1061.

[] [PMID: 26527551]
Hodge, D., Carollo, T.M., Lewin, M., Hoffman, C.D., Sweeney, D.P. (2014). Sleep patterns in children with and without autism spectrum disorders: Developmental comparisons. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(7), 1631-1638.

[] [PMID: 24780146]
Hollway, J.A., Aman, M.G., Butter, E. (2013). Correlates and risk markers for sleep disturbance in participants of the autism treatment network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2830-2843.

[] [PMID: 23624832]
Howes, O.D., Rogdaki, M., Findon, J.L., Wichers, R.H., Charman, T., King, B.H., Loth, E., McAlonan, G.M., McCracken, J.T., Parr, J.R., Povey, C., Santosh, P., Wallace, S., Simonoff, E., Murphy, D.G. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder: Consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British association for psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(1), 3-29.

[] [PMID: 29237331]
Hundley, R.J., Shui, A., Malow, B.A. (2016). Relationship between subtypes of restricted and repetitive behaviors and sleep disturbance in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(11), 3448-3457.

[] [PMID: 27511195]
Hyman, S.L., Levy, S.E., Myers, S.M., Kuo, D.Z., Apkon, S., Davidson, L.F., Ellerbeck, K.A., Foster, J.E.A., Noritz, G.H., Leppert, M.O.C., Saunders, B.S., Stille, C., Yin, L., Weitzman, C.C., Childers, D.O., Jr, Levine, J.M., Peralta-Carcelen, A.M., Poon, J.K., Smith, P.J., Blum, N.J., Takayama, J.I., Baum, R., Voigt, R.G., Bridgemohan, C. (2020). Identification, evaluation, and management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics, 145(1), e20193447.

[] [PMID: 31843864]
Iossifov, I., O’Roak, B.J., Sanders, S.J., Ronemus, M., Krumm, N., Levy, D., Stessman, H.A., Witherspoon, K.T., Vives, L., Patterson, K.E., Smith, J.D., Paeper, B., Nickerson, D.A., Dea, J., Dong, S., Gonzalez, L.E., Mandell, J.D., Mane, S.M., Murtha, M.T., Sullivan, C.A., Walker, M.F., Waqar, Z., Wei, L., Willsey, A.J., Yamrom, B., Lee, Y., Grabowska, E., Dalkic, E., Wang, Z., Marks, S., Andrews, P., Leotta, A., Kendall, J., Hakker, I., Rosenbaum, J., Ma, B., Rodgers, L., Troge, J., Narzisi, G., Yoon, S., Schatz, M.C., Ye, K., McCombie, W.R., Shendure, J., Eichler, E.E., State, M.W., Wigler, M. (2014). The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Nature, 515(7526), 216-221.

[] [PMID: 25363768]
Jenabi, E., Ataei, S., Bashirian, S. (2019). Evaluation of drug interventions for the treatment of sleep disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 62(11), 405-409.

[] [PMID: 31760719]
Johansson, A.E.E., Dorman, J.S., Chasens, E.R., Feeley, C.A., Devlin, B. (2019). Variations in genes related to sleep patterns in children with autism spectrum disorder. Biological Research For Nursing, 21(3), 335-342.

[] [PMID: 30983407]
Keogh, S., Bridle, C., Siriwardena, N.A., Nadkarni, A., Laparidou, D., Durrant, S.J., Kargas, N., Law, G.R., Curtis, F. (2019). Effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 14(8), e0221428.

[] [PMID: 31437211]
Kevelson, S.D., Rahman, J., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J. (2021). Dulcan’s Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rd ed.; American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC pp. 1188.
Kuhlthau, K., Orlich, F., Hall, T.A., Sikora, D., Kovacs, E.A., Delahaye, J., Clemons, T.E. (2010). Health-related quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorders: Results from the autism treatment network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(6), 721-729.

[] [PMID: 20033762]
Lewis, A.S., van Schalkwyk, G.I., Lopez, M.O., Volkmar, F.R., Picciotto, M.R., Sukhodolsky, D.G. (2018). An exploratory trial of transdermal nicotine for aggression and irritability in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(8), 2748-2757.

[] [PMID: 29536216]
Linke, A.C., Chen, B., Olson, L., Ibarra, C., Fong, C., Reynolds, S., Apostol, M., Kinnear, M.K., Müller, R-A., Fishman, I. (2023). Sleep problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders are associated with sensory sensitivities and thalamocortical overconnectivity. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 8(1), 21-31.

Logan, R.W., McClung, C.A. (2019). Rhythms of life: circadian disruption and brain disorders across the lifespan. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 20(1), 49-65.

[] [PMID: 30459365]
Long, Z., Duan, X., Mantini, D., Chen, H. (2016). Alteration of functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder: effect of age and anatomical distance. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 26527.

[] [PMID: 27194227]
Loring, W.A., Johnston, R., Shui, A.M., Malow, B.A., Spannagel, S.C. (2018). Impact of a brief behavioral intervention for insomnia on daytime behaviors in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy: On the Cutting Edge of Modern Developments in Psychotherapy, 48(3), 165-177.

Lugo, J., Fadeuilhe, C., Gisbert, L., Setien, I., Delgado, M., Corrales, M., Richarte, V., Ramos-Quiroga, J.A. (2020). Sleep in adults with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 38, 1-24.

[] [PMID: 32712061]
Malow, B.A., Findling, R.L., Schroder, C.M., Maras, A., Breddy, J., Nir, T., Zisapel, N., Gringras, P. (2021). Sleep, growth, and puberty after 2 years of prolonged-release melatonin in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(2), 252-261.e3.

[] [PMID: 31982581]
Malow, B., Adkins, K.W., McGrew, S.G., Wang, L., Goldman, S.E., Fawkes, D., Burnette, C. (2012). Melatonin for sleep in children with autism: A controlled trial examining dose, tolerability, and outcomes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(8), 1729-1737.

[] [PMID: 22160300]
Maras, A., Schroder, C.M., Malow, B.A., Findling, R.L., Breddy, J., Nir, T., Shahmoon, S., Zisapel, N., Gringras, P. (2018). Long-term efficacy and safety of pediatric prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 28(10), 699-710.

[] [PMID: 30132686]
May, T., Sciberras, E., Hiscock, H., Rinehart, N.J. (2016). The comorbid diagnosis of ASD and ADHD: Clinical and neuropsychological perspectives. Handbook of Assessment and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Mazurek, M.O., Dovgan, K., Neumeyer, A.M., Malow, B.A. (2019). Course and predictors of sleep and co-occurring problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(5), 2101-2115.

[] [PMID: 30684086]
Mazurek, M.O., Petroski, G.F. (2015). Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: Examining the contributions of sensory over-responsivity and anxiety. Sleep Medicine, 16(2), 270-279.

[] [PMID: 25600781]
Mazurek, M., Richdale, A.L. (2021). Editors’ prologue and introduction to the special issue. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 88, 101850.

Mazzone, L., Postorino, V., Siracusano, M., Riccioni, A., Curatolo, P. (2018). The relationship between sleep problems, neurobiological alterations, core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and psychiatric comorbidities. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(5), 102.

[] [PMID: 29751511]
McCrae, C.S., Chan, W.S., Curtis, A.F., Deroche, C.B., Munoz, M., Takamatsu, S., Muckerman, J.E., Takahashi, N., McCann, D., McGovney, K., Sahota, P., Mazurek, M.O. (2020). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia in school‐aged children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot feasibility study. Autism Research, 13(1), 167-176.

[] [PMID: 31566918]
McLay, L., France, K., Blampied, N., van Deurs, J., Hunter, J., Knight, J., Hastie, B., Carnett, A., Woodford, E., Gibbs, R., Lang, R. (2021). Function-based behavioral interventions for sleep problems in children and adolescents with autism: Summary of 41 clinical cases. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(2), 418-432. a.

[] [PMID: 32488582]
McLay, L.L., France, K.G., Blampied, N.M., Hunter, J.E., van Deurs, J.R., Woodford, E.C., Lang, R. (2021). Collateral child and parent effects of function based behavioral interventions for sleep problems in children and adolescents with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52, 2258-2273.

Migliarese, G., Torriero, S., Gesi, C., Venturi, V., Reibman, Y., Cerveri, G., Viganò, V., Decaroli, G., Ricciardelli, P., Mencacci, C. (2020). Sleep quality among adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder: Which is the role of gender and chronotype? Sleep Medicine, 76, 128-133.

[] [PMID: 33157427]
Ming, X., Gordon, E., Kang, N., Wagner, G.C. (2008). Use of clonidine in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Development, 30(7), 454-460.

[] [PMID: 18280681]
Missig, G., McDougle, C.J., Carlezon, W.A., Jr (2020). Sleep as a translationally-relevant endpoint in studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neuropsychopharmacology, 45(1), 90-103.

[] [PMID: 31060044]
Anderson, S., Norman, J. (2016). Novel class of medications, orexin receptor antagonists, in the treatment of insomnia - critical appraisal of suvorexant. Nature and Science of Sleep, 8, 239-247.

[] [PMID: 27471419]
Pagan, C., Goubran-Botros, H., Delorme, R., Benabou, M., Lemière, N., Murray, K., Amsellem, F., Callebert, J., Chaste, P., Jamain, S., Fauchereau, F., Huguet, G., Maronde, E., Leboyer, M., Launay, J.M., Bourgeron, T. (2017). Disruption of melatonin synthesis is associated with impaired 14-3-3 and miR-451 levels in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Science Reports, 7(1), 2096.

[] [PMID: 28522826]
Patel, R., Parmar, N., Pramanik Palit, S., Rathwa, N., Ramachandran, A.V., Begum, R. (2022). Diabetes mellitus and melatonin: Where are we? Biochimie, 2022, 2-14.

Piwowarczyk, A., Horvath, A., Łukasik, J., Pisula, E., Szajewska, H. (2018). Gluten- and casein-free diet and autism spectrum disorders in children: A systematic review. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(2), 433-440.

[] [PMID: 28612113]
Ramtekkar, U., Ivanenko, A. (2017). Sleep in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Sleep Disorders in Adolescents: A Clinical Casebook.. Springer International Publishing.

Ramtekkar, U. (2017). DSM-5 Changes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: Implications for comorbid sleep issues. Children, 4(8), 62.

[] [PMID: 28749421]
Reynolds, A.M., Malow, B.A. (2011). Sleep and autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 685-698.

[] [PMID: 21600349]
Richdale, A.L., Baker, E., Short, M., Gradisar, M. (2014). The role of insomnia, pre-sleep arousal and psychopathology symptoms in daytime impairment in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Sleep Medicine, 15(9), 1082-1088.

[] [PMID: 24974199]
Rylaarsdam, L., Guemez-Gamboa, A. (2019). Genetic causes and modifiers of autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 13, 385.

[] [PMID: 31481879]
Saré, R.M., Smith, C.B. (2020). Association between sleep deficiencies with behavioral problems in autism spectrum disorder: Subtle sex differences. Autism Research, 13(10), 1802-1810.

[] [PMID: 32964679]
Sateia, M.J. (2014). International classification of sleep disorders-third edition: highlights and modifications. Chest, 146(5), 1387-1394.

[] [PMID: 25367475]
Schmidt, L., Johnson, K.P., Ivanenko, A. (2021). Sleep-Wake Disorders. In: Dulcan, M., (Ed.), Dulcan’s Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.. APPI.
Schroder, C.M., Banaschewski, T., Fuentes, J., Hill, C.M., Hvolby, A., Posserud, M.B., Bruni, O. (2021). Pediatric prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 22(18), 2445-2454.

[] [PMID: 34314281]
Schultz, S., Siniscalco, D. (2019). Endocannabinoid system involvement in autism spectrum disorder: An overview with potential therapeutic applications. AIMS Molecular Science, 6(1), 27-37.

Singer, E.V., Shelton, A.R., Malow, B.A. (2019). Can we predict which children with autism will have obstructive sleep apnea? Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 15(10), 1389-1390.

[] [PMID: 31596200]
Smidt, S.E., Ghorai, A., Taylor, S.C., Gehringer, B.N., Dow, H.C. (2022). The relationship between autism spectrum and sleep-wake traits. Autism Research, 15(4), 641-652.

[] [PMID: 34967137]
Stewart, G.R., Corbett, A., Ballard, C., Creese, B., Aarsland, D., Hampshire, A., Charlton, R.A., Happé, F. (2020). Sleep problems and mental health difficulties in older adults who endorse high autistic traits. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 77, 101633.

Tomkies, A., Johnson, R.F., Shah, G., Caraballo, M., Evans, P., Mitchell, R.B. (2019). Obstructive sleep apnea in children with autism. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 15(10), 1469-1476.

[] [PMID: 31596212]
Tordjman, S., Anderson, G.M., Pichard, N., Charbuy, H., Touitou, Y. (2005). Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Biology of Psychiatry, 57(2), 134-138.

[] [PMID: 15652871]
Tzischinsky, O., Meiri, G., Manelis, L., Bar-Sinai, A., Flusser, H., Michaelovski, A., Zivan, O., Ilan, M., Faroy, M., Menashe, I., Dinstein, I. (2018). Sleep disturbances are associated with specific sensory sensitivities in children with autism. Molecular Autism, 9(1), 22.

[] [PMID: 29610657]
van Bon, B.W.M., Coe, B.P., Bernier, R., Green, C., Gerdts, J., Witherspoon, K., Kleefstra, T., Willemsen, M.H., Kumar, R., Bosco, P., Fichera, M., Li, D., Amaral, D., Cristofoli, F., Peeters, H., Haan, E., Romano, C., Mefford, H.C., Scheffer, I., Gecz, J., de Vries, B.B.A., Eichler, E.E. (2016). Disruptive de novo mutations of DYRK1A lead to a syndromic form of autism and ID. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(1), 126-132.

[] [PMID: 25707398]
van Heijst, B.F.C., Deserno, M.K., Rhebergen, D., Geurts, H.M. (2020). Autism and depression are connected: A report of two complimentary network studies. Autism, 24(3), 680-692.

[] [PMID: 31709804]
Vandeweyer, G., Helsmoortel, C., Van Dijck, A., Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T., Coe, B.P., Bernier, R., Gerdts, J., Rooms, L., van den Ende, J., Bakshi, M., Wilson, M., Nordgren, A., Hendon, L.G., Abdulrahman, O.A., Romano, C., de Vries, B.B.A., Kleefstra, T., Eichler, E.E., Van der Aa, N., Kooy, R.F. (2014). The transcriptional regulator ADNP links the BAF (SWI/SNF) complexes with autism. Seminars in Medical Genetics, Part C of the American Journal of Medical Genetics, 166(3), 315-326.

[] [PMID: 25169753]
Veatch, O.J., Pendergast, J.S., Allen, M.J., Leu, R.M., Johnson, C.H., Elsea, S.H., Malow, B.A. (2015). Genetic variation in melatonin pathway enzymes in children with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid sleep onset delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(1), 100-110.

[] [PMID: 25059483]
Volkmar, F., Siegel, M., Woodbury-Smith, M., King, B., McCracken, J., State, M. (2014). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(2), 237-257.

[] [PMID: 24472258]
Corkum, P., Vriend, (2011). Clinical management of behavioral insomnia of childhood. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 4, 69-79.

[] [PMID: 22114537]
Jolanta Wasilewska, J., Klukowski, M. (2015). Gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorder: Links and risks - a possible new overlap syndrome. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 6, 153-166.

[] [PMID: 29388597]
Weeks, S., Boshoff, K., Stewart, H. (2012). Systematic review of the effectiveness of the Wilbarger protocol with children. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 3, 79-89.

Williams Buckley, A., Hirtz, D., Oskoui, M., Armstrong, M.J., Batra, A., Bridgemohan, C., Coury, D., Dawson, G., Donley, D., Findling, R.L., Gaughan, T., Gloss, D., Gronseth, G., Kessler, R., Merillat, S., Michelson, D., Owens, J., Pringsheim, T., Sikich, L., Stahmer, A., Thurm, A., Tuchman, R., Warren, Z., Wetherby, A., Wiznitzer, M., Ashwal, S. (2020). Practice guideline: Treatment for insomnia and disrupted sleep behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology, 94(9), 392-404.

[] [PMID: 32051244]
Williams, K., Brignell, A., Randall, M., Silove, N., Hazell, P. (2013). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Library, 8(8), CD004677.

[] [PMID: 23959778]
Williams, T.I. (2006). Evaluating effects of aromatherapy massage on sleep in children with autism: A pilot study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 3(3), 373-377.

[] [PMID: 16951722]
Yu, Y., Chaulagain, A., Pedersen, S.A., Lydersen, S., Leventhal, B.L., Szatmari, P., Aleksic, B., Ozaki, N., Skokauskas, N. (2020). Pharmacotherapy of restricted/repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder:a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 121.

[] [PMID: 32164636]
Zhou, M.S., Nasir, M., Farhat, L.C., Kook, M., Artukoglu, B.B., Bloch, M.H. (2021). Meta-analysis: Pharmacologic treatment of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(1), 35-45.

[] [PMID: 32387445]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy