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Current Genomics


ISSN (Print): 1389-2029
ISSN (Online): 1875-5488

Research Article

Integrative Approaches of DNA Methylation Patterns According to Age, Sex and Longitudinal Changes

Author(s): Jeong-An Gim*

Volume 23, Issue 6, 2022

Published on: 19 December, 2022

Page: [385 - 399] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1389202924666221207100513

Price: $65


Background: In humans, age-related DNA methylation has been studied in blood, tissues, buccal swabs, and fibroblasts, and changes in DNA methylation patterns according to age and sex have been detected. To date, approximately 137,000 samples have been analyzed from 14,000 studies, and the information has been uploaded to the NCBI GEO database.

Methods: A correlation between age and methylation level and longitudinal changes in methylation levels was revealed in both sexes. Here, 20 public datasets derived from whole blood were analyzed using the Illumina BeadChip. Batch effects with respect to the time differences were correlated. The overall change in the pattern was provided as the inverse of the coefficient of variation (COV).

Results: Of the 20 datasets, nine were from a longitudinal study. All data had age and sex as common variables. Comprehensive details of age-, sex-, and longitudinal change-based DNA methylation levels in the whole blood sample were elucidated in this study. ELOVL2 and FHL2 showed the maximum correlation between age and DNA methylation. The methylation patterns of genes related to mental health differed according to age. Age-correlated genes have been associated with malformations (anteverted nostril, craniofacial abnormalities, and depressed nasal bridge) and drug addiction (drug habituation and smoking).

Conclusion: Based on 20 public DNA methylation datasets, methylation levels according to age and longitudinal changes by sex were identified and visualized using an integrated approach. The results highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of sex and biological age with changes in DNA methylation, and the importance of optimal genomic information management.

Keywords: Aging, biological age, DNA methylation, sex differences, longitudinal study, malformations, drug addiction.

Graphical Abstract
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