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Current Biotechnology


ISSN (Print): 2211-5501
ISSN (Online): 2211-551X

Review Article

Review of Progress and Prospects in Research on Enzymatic and Non- Enzymatic Biofuel Cells; Specific Emphasis on 2D Nanomaterials

Author(s): Mithra Geetha, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni*, Maryam Al-Ejji, Nandagopal Sivadas, Moghal Zubair Khalid Baig, Tamanna Jannat Promi, Sumayya Ali Ahmad, Sara Alabed, Dima Anwar Hijazi, Fatimatulzahraa Alsaedi and Faozia Nasser Al-Shaibah

Volume 11, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 12 December, 2022

Page: [212 - 229] Pages: 18

DOI: 10.2174/2211550112666221201152211

open access plus


Energy generation from renewable sources and effective management are two critical challenges for sustainable development. Biofuel Cells (BFCs) provide an elegant solution by combining these two tasks. BFCs are defined by the catalyst used in the fuel cell and can directly generate electricity from biological substances. Various nontoxic chemical fuels, such as glucose, lactate, urate, alcohol, amines, starch, and fructose, can be used in BFCs and have specific components to oxide fuels. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promise in renewable energy generation, remote device power sources, etc. Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) use enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize the fuel rather than precious metals. The shortcoming of the EBFCs system leads to integrated miniaturization issues, lower power density, poor operational stability, lower voltage output, lower energy density, inadequate durability, instability in the long-term application, and incomplete fuel oxidation. This necessitates the development of non-enzymatic biofuel cells (NEBFCs). The review paper extensively studies NEBFCs and its various synthetic strategies and catalytic characteristics. This paper reviews the use of nanocomposites as biocatalysts in biofuel cells and the principle of biofuel cells as well as their construction elements. This review briefly presents recent technologies developed to improve the biocatalytic properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability, implantability, and mechanical flexibility of BFCs.

Keywords: Biofuel, cells, renewable, energy, nanocomposites, biocompatibility.

Graphical Abstract
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