Generic placeholder image

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2210-6812
ISSN (Online): 2210-6820

Research Article

Study of Photocatalytic Degradation and Simultaneous Removal of a Mixture of Pollutant (MB and MG) Dyes: Kinetic and Adsorption Isotherm

Author(s): Pritam Kaushik, Gyaneshwer K Rao and Dipti Vaya*

Volume 12, Issue 6, 2022

Published on: 16 December, 2022

Article ID: e151122210922 Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2210681213666221115142649

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The major challenges faced by developing countries are the issues associated with various pollutants, such as dyes, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. Various materials and methods are available for the removal of these pollutants. Major research works have been performed on single pollutants, and rarely any research literature is available for a mixture of pollutants. This is one of the major reasons to carry out our research work in this field.

Objectives: This study aimed to develop an efficient ZnO/GO nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, characterize it by PXRD, FT-IR, and TGA, and evaluate its catalytic activity by degradation of MG, MB and a mixture of both.

Methods: In this study, GO was synthesized by the modified Hummer’s method. In this method, graphite powder was mixed with sulphuric acid and NaNO3. Then KMnO4 solution was added under continuous stirring. Excess KMnO4 was removed by H2O2 and the colour of the solution turned to be dark yellow. After proper washing and maintaining pH, the resulting material was dried at 60°C for 12h to obtain GO.

GO was dispersed in ethanol, and 0.387g Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O was added to it. The resulting mixture was sonicated, and a solution of NH3 was added very slowly by maintaining the pH of the solution at ~7. The resulting product was dried at 80°C and then calcined at 500°C for 2.5 h to get ZnO/GO nanocomposite.

Results: The photodegradation of MG, MB and a mixture of MG and MB dyes was found to be 92.23%, 35.96%, and 66.22%, respectively, in 4-5 h. The degradation of the dyes was found to follow Secondorder kinetics with a multilayer absorption phenomenon.

Conclusion: MB showed less degradation as compared to MG, but its photocatalytic activity enhanced after adding MG. This ZnO/GO nanocomposite seems to be a potential candidate to address the challenges associated with multi-pollutants, such as dyes.

Keywords: Graphene oxide, ZnO, photocatalytic activity, malachite green, methylene blue, nanocomposite.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Crini, G. Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: A review. Bioresour. Technol., 2006, 97(9), 1061-1085.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.001] [PMID: 15993052]
[2]
Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A.; Zabihi-Mobarakeh, H. Heterogeneous photodecolorization of mixture of methylene blue and bromophenol blue using CuO-nano-clinoptilolite. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2014, 20(4), 1421-1431.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.07.027]
[3]
Sudova, E.; Machova, J.; Svobodova, Z.; Vesely, T. Negative effects of malachite green and possibilities of its replacement in the treatment of fish eggs and fish: A review. Vet. Med., 2008, 52(12), 527-539.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/2027-VETMED]
[4]
Bilandžić, N.; Varenina, I.; Kolanović, B.S.; Oraić, D.; Zrnčić, S. Malachite green residues in farmed fish in Croatia. Food Control, 2012, 26(2), 393-396.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.001]
[5]
Jantawasu, P.; Sreethawong, T.; Chavadej, S. Photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline mesoporous-assembled TiO2 photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange monoazo dye in aqueous wastewater. Chem. Eng. J., 2009, 155(1-2), 223-233.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.07.036]
[6]
Rout, D.R.; Chaurasia, S.; Jena, H.M. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of malachite green using manganese oxide doped graphene oxide/zinc oxide (GO-ZnO/Mn2O3) ternary composite under sunlight irradiation. J. Environ. Manage., 2022, 318(6), 115449.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115449] [PMID: 35717692]
[7]
Liu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, M.; Qian, H.; Hu, X. Microwave-assisted non-aqueous route to deposit well-dispersed ZnO nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide sheets with improved photoactivity for the decolorization of dyes under visible light. Appl. Catal. B, 2012, 125, 425-431.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.06.016]
[8]
Jain, A.; Vaya, D. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanomaterial. J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 2017, 62(4), 3683-3690.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0717-97072017000403683]
[9]
Meena, S.; Vaya, D.; Das, B.K. Photocatalytic degradation of malachite Green dye by modified ZnO nanomaterial. Bull. Mater. Sci., 2016, 39(7), 1735-1743.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12034-016-1318-4]
[10]
Yin, H.; Yu, K.; Song, C.; Huang, R.; Zhu, Z. Synthesis of Au-decorated V2O5@ZnO heteronanostructures and enhanced plasmonic photocatalytic activity. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6(17), 14851-14860.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am501549n] [PMID: 25140838]
[11]
Singh, M.; Vaya, D.; Kumar, R.; Das, B. Role of EDTA capped cobalt oxide nanomaterial in photocatalytic degradation of dyes. J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 2021, 86(3), 327-340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/JSC200711074S]
[12]
Pardeshi, S.K.; Patil, A.B. Solar photocatalytic degradation of resorcinol a model endocrine disrupter in water using zinc oxide. J. Hazard. Mater., 2009, 163(1), 403-409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.111] [PMID: 18715714]
[13]
Pan, C.; Dong, L.; Qu, B.; Wang, J. Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance of 3D ZnO hierarchical structures. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 2011, 11(6), 5042-5048.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.3887] [PMID: 21770141]
[14]
Verma, S.; Arya, P.; Singh, A.; Kaswan, J.; Shukla, A.; Kushwaha, H.R.; Gupta, S.; Singh, S.P. ZnO-rGO nanocomposite based bioelectrode for sensitive and ultrafast detection of dopamine in human serum. Biosens. Bioelectron., 2020, 165, 112347.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112347] [PMID: 32729488]
[15]
Li, J.; Yuan, H.; Zhang, Q.; Luo, K.; Liu, Y.; Hu, W.; Xu, M.; Xu, S. Designed Ag-decorated Mn: ZnO nanocomposite: Facile synthesis, and enhanced visible light absorption and photogenerated carrier separation. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2020, 22(46), 27272-27279.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/D0CP04731G] [PMID: 33227105]
[16]
Goktas, S.; Goktas, A. A comparative study on recent progress in efficient ZnO based nanocomposite and heterojunction photocatalysts: A review. J. Alloys Compd., 2021, 863, 158734.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.158734]
[17]
Putri, L.K.; Tan, L.L.; Ong, W.J.; Chang, W.S.; Chai, S.P. Graphene oxide: Exploiting its unique properties toward visible-light-driven photocatalysis. Appl. Mater. Today, 2016, 4, 9-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2016.04.001]
[18]
Kaur, M.; Pal, K. Potential electrochemical hydrogen storage in nickel and cobalt nanoparticles-induced zirconia-graphene nanocomposite. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 2020, 31(13), 10903-10911.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-03641-y]
[19]
Liu, X.; Pan, L.; Zhao, Q.; Lv, T.; Zhu, G.; Chen, T.; Lu, T.; Sun, Z.; Sun, C. UV-assisted photocatalytic synthesis of ZnO–reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity in reduction of Cr(VI). Chem. Eng. J., 2012, 183, 238-243.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.12.068]
[20]
Oyewo, O.A.; Ramaila, S.; Mavuru, L.; Onwudiwe, D.C. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using Sn-ZnO/GO nanocomposite. J. Photochem. Photobiol, 2022, 11(6), 100131.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpap.2022.100131]
[21]
Samadi, M.; Zirak, M.; Naseri, A.; Khorashadizade, E.; Moshfegh, A.Z. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis. Thin Solid Films, 2016, 605, 2-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2015.12.064]
[22]
Yun, S.H.; Jho, E.H.; Jeong, S.; Choi, S.; Kal, Y.; Cha, S. Photodegradation of tetracycline and sulfathiazole individually and in mixtures. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2018, 116(Pt B), 108-113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.037] [PMID: 29630946]
[23]
Hummers, W.S., Jr; Offeman, R.E. Preparation of graphitic oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, 80(6), 1339.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01539a017]
[24]
Chen, Y.L.; Zhang, C.E.; Deng, C.; Fei, P.; Zhong, M.; Su, B.T. Preparation of ZnO/GO composite material with highly photocatalytic performance via an improved two-step method. Chin. Chem. Lett., 2013, 24(6), 518-520.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2013.03.034]
[25]
Sun, J.; Jiang, H.; Wu, H.; Tong, C.; Pang, J.; Wu, C. Multifunctional bionanocomposite films based on konjac glucomannan/chitosan with nano-ZnO and mulberry anthocyanin extract for active food packaging. Food Hydrocoll., 2020, 107, 105942.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.105942]
[26]
Khan, Y.; Durrani, S.K.; Mehmood, M.; Ahmad, J.; Khan, M.R.; Firdous, S. Low temperature synthesis of fluorescent ZnO nanoparticles. Appl. Surf. Sci., 2010, 257(5), 1756-1761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.09.011]
[27]
Ayawei, N.; Ebelegi, A.N.; Wankasi, D. Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms. J. Chem., 2017, 2017, 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3039817]
[28]
Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of adsorptive properties of orange peel based activated carbon via microwave induced K2CO3 activation. Bioresour. Technol., 2012, 104, 679-686.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.10.005] [PMID: 22101073]
[29]
Mouni, L.; Merabet, D.; Bouzaza, A.; Belkhiri, L. Adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions using activated carbon developed from Apricot stone. Desalination, 2011, 276(1-3), 148-153.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.03.038]
[30]
Banerjee, S.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Pillai, S.C. Self-cleaning applications of TiO2 by photo-induced hydrophilicity and photocatalysis. Appl. Catal. B, 2015, 176-177, 396-428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.03.058]
[31]
Verma, N.; Chundawat, T. S.; Surolia, P. K.; Vaya, D. Photocatalytic reduction of CrVI by TiO2/GO nanocomposite. ChemistrySelect, 2022, 7(2), 8-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/slct.202201275]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy