Generic placeholder image

Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

General Review Article

Recent Developments and Anticancer Therapeutics of Paclitaxel: An Update

Author(s): Anees Ahmed Khalil, Abdur Rauf, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Abdullah S.M. Aljohani, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Mohamed A. El-Esawi, Sami Bawazeer, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Maksim Rebezov, Mohammad Ali Shariati and Muthu Thiruvengadam*

Volume 28, Issue 41, 2022

Published on: 15 November, 2022

Page: [3363 - 3373] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1381612829666221102155212

Price: $65


Plants are a source of diverse classes of secondary metabolites with anticancer properties. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an anticancer drug isolated from various Taxus species and is used as a chemotherapeutic agent against various cancers. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel is a complex pathway, making its total chemical synthesis commercially non-viable; hence, alternative novel sources - like plant cell culture and heterologous expression systems, are being investigated to overcome this issue. Advancements in the field of genetic engineering, microbial fermentation engineering, and recombinant techniques have significantly increased the achievable yields of paclitaxel. Indeed, paclitaxel selectively targets microtubules and causes cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, inducing a cytotoxic effect in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Innovative drug delivery formulations, like the development of albumin-bound nanoparticles, nano-emulsions, nano-suspensions, liposomes, and polymeric micelles, have been applied to enhance the delivery of paclitaxel to tumor cells. This review focuses on the production, biosynthesis, mechanism of action, and anticancer effects of paclitaxel.

Keywords: Paclitaxel, taxol, biosynthesis, anticancer, nanomedicine, cancer.

Weaver BA. How Taxol/paclitaxel kills cancer cells. Mol Biol Cell 2014; 25(18): 2677-81.
[] [PMID: 25213191]
Gallego-Jara J, Lozano-Terol G, Sola-Martínez RA, Cánovas-Díaz M, de Diego Puente T. A compressive review about Taxol®: History and future challenges. Molecules 2020; 25(24): 5986.
[] [PMID: 33348838]
Awada A, Bondarenko IN, Bonneterre J, et al. A randomized controlled phase II trial of a novel composition of paclitaxel embedded into neutral and cationic lipids targeting tumor endothelial cells in advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Ann Oncol 2014; 25(4): 824-31.
[] [PMID: 24667715]
Zou D, Wang D, Li R, et al. MiR-197 induces Taxol resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by regulating NLK. Tumour Biol 2015; 36(9): 6725-32.
[] [PMID: 25833695]
Zhu L, Chen L. Progress in research on paclitaxel and tumor immunotherapy. Cell Mol Biol Lett 2019; 24(1): 40.
[] [PMID: 31223315]
Stanton RA, Gernert KM, Nettles JH, Aneja R. Drugs that target dynamic microtubules: A new molecular perspective. Med Res Rev 2011; 31(3): 443-81.
[] [PMID: 21381049]
Kasai S, Sasaki T, Watanabe A, et al. Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 sensitizes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to paclitaxel-induced cell death. Oncol Lett 2017; 14(1): 903-8.
[] [PMID: 28693250]
Lu H, Zha S, Zhang W, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nab-paclitaxel mono-chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. BMC Cancer 2021; 21(1): 830.
[] [PMID: 34275458]
Ibrahim NK, Desai N, Legha S, et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of ABI-007, a Cremophor-free, protein-stabilized, nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8(5): 1038-44.
[PMID: 12006516]
Yardley DA. nab-Paclitaxel mechanisms of action and delivery. J Control Release 2013; 170(3): 365-72.
[] [PMID: 23770008]
Gradishar WJ, Tjulandin S, Davidson N, Shaw H, Desai N, Bhar PP. Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 7794-803.2005.
Wani MC, Horwitz SB. Nature as a remarkable chemist. Anticancer Drugs 2014; 25(5): 482-7.
[] [PMID: 24413390]
Schiff PB, Fant J, Horwitz SB. Promotion of microtubule assembly in vitro by taxol. Nature 1979; 277(5698): 665-7.
[] [PMID: 423966]
Schiff PB, Horwitz SB. Taxol stabilizes microtubules in mouse fibroblast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77(3): 1561-5.
[] [PMID: 6103535]
Rowinsky EK, Cazenave LA, Donehower RC. Taxol: A novel investigational antimicrotubule agent. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82(15): 1247-59.
[] [PMID: 1973737]
Li S, Zhang H, Yao P, Sun H, Fong HHS. Taxane diterpenoids from the bark of Taxus yunnanensis. Phytochemistry 2001; 58(2): 369-74.
[] [PMID: 11551566]
Malik S, Cusidó RM, Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Palazón J, Bonfill M. Production of the anticancer drug taxol in Taxus baccata suspension cultures: A review. Process Biochem 2011; 46(1): 23-34.
Lou J, Niu XL, Yan F, Pan J, Zhu XD. Recent progresses in the studies of Taxol and taxane-producing fungi. Junwu Xuebao 2011; 30: 158-67.
Holton RA, Kim HB, Somoza C, et al. First total synthesis of taxol. 2. Completion of the C and D rings. J Am Chem Soc 1994; 116(4): 1599-600.
Nicolaou KC, Yang Z, Liu JJ, et al. Total synthesis of taxol. Nature 1994; 367(6464): 630-4.
[] [PMID: 7906395]
Howat S, Park B, Oh IS, Jin YW, Lee EK, Loake GJ. Paclitaxel: biosynthesis, production and future prospects. N Biotechnol 2014; 31(3): 242-5.
[] [PMID: 24614567]
Yukimune Y, Tabata H, Higashi Y, Hara Y. Methyl jasmonate-induced overproduction of paclitaxel and baccatin III in Taxus cell sus-pension cultures. Nat Biotechnol 1996; 14(9): 1129-32.
[] [PMID: 9631065]
Choi HK, Kim SI, Son JS, et al. Intermittent maltose feeding enhances paclitaxel production in suspension culture of Taxus chinensis cells. Biotechnol Lett 2000; 22(22): 1793-6.
Li YC, Tao WY, Cheng L. Paclitaxel production using co-culture of Taxus suspension cells and paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi in a co-bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2009; 83(2): 233-9.
[] [PMID: 19172266]
Stierle A, Strobel G, Stierle D. Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of Pacific yew. Science 1993; 260(5105): 214-6.
[] [PMID: 8097061]
Chen YJ, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Su Y, Zhang R. Screening endophytic fungus to produce Taxol from Taxus yunnanensis. Biotechnology 2003; 13(2): 10-1.
Strobel G, Yang X, Sears J, Kramer R, Sidhu RS, Hess WM. Taxol from Pestalotiopsis microspora, an endophytic fungus of Taxus walla-chiana. Microbiology (Reading) 1996; 142(2): 435-40.
[] [PMID: 8932715]
Li J, Strobel G, Sidhu R, Hess WM, Ford EJ. Endophytic taxol-producing fungi from bald cypress, Taxodium distichum. Microbiology (Reading) 1996; 142(8): 2223-6.
[] [PMID: 8760934]
Wang J, Li G, Lu H, Zheng Z, Huang Y, Su W. Taxol from Tubercularia sp. strain TF5, an endophytic fungus of Taxus mairei. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2000; 193(2): 249-53.
[] [PMID: 11111032]
Chen Q, Zhang QZ, Liu J, et al. Multi-center prospective randomized trial on paclitaxel liposome and traditional taxol in the treatment of breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2003; 25(2): 190-2.
[PMID: 12795852]
Nikolic V, Savic I, Savic I, Nikolic L, Stankovic M, Marinkovic V. Paclitaxel as an anticancer agent: isolation, activity, synthesis and stability. Open Med (Wars) 2011; 6(5): 527-36.
Koehn FE. Natural products and cancer drug discovery. In: Mang CP, Haustedt LO, Eds. Natural Product Scaffolds in Cancer Thera-py. New York: Humana Press 2013; pp. 123-73.
Zhao C, Song G, Fu C, et al. A systematic approach to expound the variations in taxane production under different dissolved oxygen conditions in Taxus chinensis cells. Plant Cell Rep 2016; 35(3): 541-59.
[] [PMID: 26620815]
Smetanska I. Production of secondary metabolites using plant cell cultures. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2008; 111: 187-228.
[] [PMID: 18594786]
Ketchum REB, Gibson DM. Paclitaxel production in suspension cell cultures of Taxus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 1996; 46(1): 9-16.
Lee EK, Jin YW, Park JH, et al. Cultured cambial meristematic cells as a source of plant natural products. Nat Biotechnol 2010; 28(11): 1213-7.
[] [PMID: 20972422]
Roberts SC. Production and engineering of terpenoids in plant cell culture. Nat Chem Biol 2007; 3(7): 387-95.
[] [PMID: 17576426]
Löwe J, Li H, Downing KH, Nogales E. Refined structure of αβtubulin at 3.5 Å resolution edited by I. A. Wilson. J Mol Biol. 2001; 313: pp. (5)1045-57.
[] [PMID: 11700061]
Ganguly A, Yang H, Cabral F. Paclitaxel-dependent cell lines reveal a novel drug activity. Mol Cancer Ther 2010; 9(11): 2914-23.
[] [PMID: 20978163]
Alexandre J, Hu Y, Lu W, Pelicano H, Huang P. Novel action of paclitaxel against cancer cells: bystander effect mediated by reactive oxygen species. Cancer Res 2007; 67(8): 3512-7.
[] [PMID: 17440056]
Hadzic T, Aykin-Burns N, Zhu Y, et al. Paclitaxel combined with inhibitors of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism enhances breast cancer cell killing via H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2010; 48(8): 1024-33.
[] [PMID: 20083194]
Giannakakou P, Sackett DL, Kang YK, et al. Paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells have mutant beta-tubulins that exhibit im-paired paclitaxel-driven polymerization. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(27): 17118-25.
[] [PMID: 9202030]
Kreis T, Vale R. Guidebook to the Cytoskeletal and Motor Proteins. (2nd ed.), Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 1999.
Sevko A, Kremer V, Falk C, et al. Application of paclitaxel in low non-cytotoxic doses supports vaccination with melanoma antigens in normal mice. J Immunotoxicol 2012; 9(3): 275-81.
[] [PMID: 22449053]
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin 2016; 66(1): 7-30.
[] [PMID: 26742998]
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2021; 71(3): 209-49.
[] [PMID: 33538338]
Ansari MA, Thiruvengadam M, Farooqui Z, et al. Nanotechnology, in silico and endocrine-based strategy for delivering paclitaxel and miRNA: Prospects for the therapeutic management of breast cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 2021; 69: 109-28.
[] [PMID: 31891780]
Wei Y, Pu X, Zhao L. Preclinical studies for the combination of paclitaxel and curcumin in cancer therapy. Oncol Rep 2017; 37(6): 3159-66.
[] [PMID: 28440434]
Abu Samaan TM, Samec M, Liskova A, Kubatka P, Büsselberg D. Paclitaxel’s mechanistic and clinical effects on breast cancer. Biomolecules 2019; 9(12): 789.
[] [PMID: 31783552]
Sunters A, Fernández de Mattos S, Stahl M, et al. FoxO3a transcriptional regulation of Bim controls apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated breast cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem 2003; 278(50): 49795-805.
[] [PMID: 14527951]
Klaassen U, Wilke H, Strumberg D, Eberhardt W, Korn M, Seeber S. Phase I study with a weekly 1 h infusion of paclitaxel in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast and ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer 1996; 32(3): 547-9.
[] [PMID: 8814705]
Pires LA, Hegg R, Valduga CJ, Graziani SR, Rodrigues DG, Maranhão RC. Use of cholesterol-rich nanoparticles that bind to lipoprotein receptors as a vehicle to paclitaxel in the treatment of breast cancer: pharmacokinetics, tumor uptake and a pilot clinical study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 63(2): 281-7.
[] [PMID: 18365196]
Seidman AD, Hudis CA, Albanell J, et al. Dose-dense therapy with weekly 1-hour paclitaxel infusions in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(10): 3353-61.
[] [PMID: 9779712]
Henderson IC, Berry DA, Demetri GD, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential Paclitaxel but not from escalating Doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(6): 976-83.
[] [PMID: 12637460]
Zeng WG, Li JJ, Hu P, Lei L, Wang JN, Liu RB. An oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector, G47Δ synergizes with paclitaxel in the treat-ment of breast cancer. Oncol Rep 2013; 29(6): 2355-61.
[] [PMID: 23525624]
Schmid P, Adams S, Rugo HS, et al. Atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel in advanced triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2018; 379(22): 2108-21.
[] [PMID: 30345906]
Nabholtz JM, Gelmon K, Bontenbal M, et al. Multicenter, randomized comparative study of two doses of paclitaxel in patients with met-astatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14(6): 1858-67.
[] [PMID: 8656254]
Akerley W III. Paclitaxel in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: An alternative high-dose weekly schedule. Chest 2000; 117(4): 152S-5S.
[] [PMID: 10777471]
Pirker R, Krajnik G, Zöchbauer S, Malayeri R, Kneussl M, Huber H. Paclitaxel/cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ann Oncol 1995; 6(8): 833-5.
[] [PMID: 8589023]
Asahina H, Oizumi S, Takamura K, et al. A prospective phase II study of carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and concomitant interstitial lung disease (HOT1302). Lung Cancer 2019; 138: 65-71.
[] [PMID: 31654836]
Weigel TL, Lotze MT, Kim PK, Amoscato AA, Luketich JD, Odoux C. Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in non–small cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with increased caspase-3 activity. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119(4): 795-803.
[] [PMID: 10733772]
Kyakulaga AH, Aqil F, Munagala R, Gupta RC. Synergistic combinations of paclitaxel and withaferin A against human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Oncotarget 2020; 11(16): 1399-416.
[] [PMID: 32362998]
Yamori T, Sato S, Chikazawa H, Kadota T. Anti-tumor efficacy of paclitaxel against human lung cancer xenografts. Jpn J Cancer Res 1997; 88(12): 1205-10.
[] [PMID: 9473739]
Saijo A, Hanibuchi M, Ogino H, et al. Paclitaxel for relapsed small cell lung cancer patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Mol Clin Oncol 2019; 10(5): 541-6.
[] [PMID: 30967948]
Socinski MA, Bondarenko I, Karaseva NA, et al. Weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus solvent-based paclitaxel plus carboplatin as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: final results of a phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30(17): 2055-62.
[] [PMID: 22547591]
Ovarian Cancer in Australia: An Overview, 2010. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre (Australia). Cancer SeriesCanberra, Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010; 115-20.
Kampan NC, Madondo MT, McNally OM, Quinn M, Plebanski M. Paclitaxel and its evolving role in the management of ovarian cancer. BioMed Res Int 2015; 2015: 1-21.
[] [PMID: 26137480]
McGuire WP, Rowinsky EK, Rosenshein NB, et al. Taxol: a unique antineoplastic agent with significant activity in advanced ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111(4): 273-9.
[] [PMID: 2569287]
Ozols RF. Paclitaxel plus carboplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Semin Oncol 1999; 26(1) (Suppl. 2): 84-9.
[PMID: 10190787]
Benedetti Panici P, Palaia I, Graziano M, Bellati F, Manci N, Angioli R. Intraperitoneal paclitaxel as consolidation treatment in ovarian cancer patients: a case control study. Oncology 2010; 78(1): 20-5.
[] [PMID: 20185937]
Bae JH, Lee JM, Ryu KS, et al. Treatment of ovarian cancer with paclitaxel- or carboplatin-based intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemo-therapy during secondary surgery. Gynecol Oncol 2007; 106(1): 193-200.
[] [PMID: 17466362]
Hu Q, Li W, Hu X, et al. Synergistic treatment of ovarian cancer by co-delivery of survivin shRNA and paclitaxel via supramolecular micellar assembly. Biomaterials 2012; 33(27): 6580-91.
[] [PMID: 22717365]
du Bois A, Lück HJ, Meier W, et al. A randomized clinical trial of cisplatin/paclitaxel versus carboplatin/paclitaxel as first-line treatment of ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95(17): 1320-9.
[] [PMID: 12953086]
Trimble EL, Adams JD, Vena D, et al. Paclitaxel for platinum-refractory ovarian cancer: results from the first 1,000 patients registered to National Cancer Institute Treatment Referral Center 9103. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11(12): 2405-10.
[] [PMID: 7902426]
Parmar MK, Ledermann JA, Colombo N, et al. Paclitaxel plus platinum-based chemotherapy versus conventional platinum-based chemo-therapy in women with relapsed ovarian cancer: the ICON4/AGO-OVAR-2.2 trial. Lancet 2003; 361(9375): 2099-106.
[] [PMID: 12826431]
Méndez LE, Mueller A, Salom E, González-Quintero VH. Paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy administered during pregnancy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102(5 Pt 2): 1200-2.
[PMID: 14607056]
McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF, et al. Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996; 334(1): 1-6.
[] [PMID: 7494563]
Kuittinen T, Rovio P, Luukkaala T, et al. Paclitaxel, carboplatin and 1,25-D3 inhibit proliferation of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Res 2020; 40(6): 3129-38.
[] [PMID: 32487607]
Fujii K, Takano M, Okamoto S, Sasaki N, Kita T, Kikuchi Y. Clinical study on the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel administration for plati-num-resistant epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2004; 31(13): 2141-4.
[PMID: 15628759]
Vassileva V, Allen CJ, Piquette-Miller M. Effects of sustained and intermittent paclitaxel therapy on tumor repopulation in ovarian can-cer. Mol Cancer Ther 2008; 7(3): 630-7.
[] [PMID: 18347149]
Sahoo SK, Ma W, Labhasetwar V. Efficacy of transferrin-conjugated paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles in a murine model of prostate can-cer. Int J Cancer 2004; 112(2): 335-40.
[] [PMID: 15352049]
Bode C, Trojan L, Weiss C, et al. Paclitaxel encapsulated in cationic liposomes: a new option for neovascular targeting for the treatment of prostate cancer. Oncol Rep 2009; 22(2): 321-6.
[PMID: 19578772]
Nimmanapalli R, Perkins CL, Orlando M, O’Bryan E, Nguyen D, Bhalla KN. Pretreatment with paclitaxel enhances apo-2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by inducing death receptors 4 and 5 protein levels. Cancer Res 2001; 61(2): 759-63.
[PMID: 11212279]
Xie X, Eberding A, Madera C, et al. Rh2 synergistically enhances paclitaxel or mitoxantrone in prostate cancer models. J Urol 2006; 175(5): 1926-31.
[] [PMID: 16600800]
Hudes GR, Nathan F, Khater C, et al. Phase II trial of 96-hour paclitaxel plus oral estramustine phosphate in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15(9): 3156-63.
[] [PMID: 9294479]
Takei Y, Kadomatsu K, Goto T, Muramatsu T. Combinational antitumor effect of siRNA against midkine and paclitaxel on growth of human prostate cancer xenografts. Cancer 2006; 107(4): 864-73.
[] [PMID: 16832814]
Urakami S, Igawa M, Kikuno N, et al. Combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel, estramustine and carboplatin for hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Urol 2002; 168(6): 2444-50.
[] [PMID: 12441936]
Ma G, Liu Y, Peng C, Fang D, He B, Nie J. Paclitaxel loaded electrospun porous nanofibers as mat potential application for chemothera-py against prostate cancer. Carbohydr Polym 2011; 86(2): 505-12.
Koziara JM, Lockman PR, Allen DD, Mumper RJ. Paclitaxel nanoparticles for the potential treatment of brain tumors. J Control Release 2004; 99(2): 259-69.
[] [PMID: 15380635]
Zhang DY, Dmello C, Chen L, et al. Ultrasound-mediated delivery of paclitaxel for glioma: A comparative study of distribution, toxicity, and efficacy of albumin-bound versus cremophor formulations. Clin Cancer Res 2020; 26(2): 477-86.
[] [PMID: 31831565]
Ullah I, Chung K, Bae S, et al. Nose-to-brain delivery of cancer-targeting paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles potentiates antitumor effects in malignant glioblastoma. Mol Pharm 2020; 17(4): 1193-204.
[] [PMID: 31944768]
Li XY, Zhao Y, Sun MG, et al. Multifunctional liposomes loaded with paclitaxel and artemether for treatment of invasive brain glioma. Biomaterials 2014; 35(21): 5591-604.
[] [PMID: 24726749]
Cui Y, Xu Q, Chow PKH, Wang D, Wang CH. Transferrin-conjugated magnetic silica PLGA nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin and paclitaxel for brain glioma treatment. Biomaterials 2013; 34(33): 8511-20.
[] [PMID: 23932498]
Maeda S, Motoi F, Onogawa T, et al. Paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer: a retrospective study. Int J Clin Oncol 2011; 16(5): 539-45.
[] [PMID: 21455624]
Ma WW, Hidalgo M. The winning formulation: the development of paclitaxel in pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19(20): 5572-9.
[] [PMID: 23918602]
Blomstrand H, Scheibling U, Bratthäll C, Green H, Elander NO. Real world evidence on gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer. BMC Cancer 2019; 19(1): 40.
[] [PMID: 30621618]
Von Hoff DD, Ramanathan RK, Borad MJ, et al. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel is an active regimen in patients with advanced pancreat-ic cancer: A phase I/II trial. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29(34): 4548-54.
[] [PMID: 21969517]
Igarashi H, Ito T, Hisano T, et al. Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer after gemcitabine-based therapy failure: a case series of 5 patients. Case Rep Oncol 2011; 4(3): 534-41.
[] [PMID: 22187539]
Ko AH, Truong TG, Kantoff E, et al. A phase I trial of nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and capecitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2012; 70(6): 875-81.
[] [PMID: 23053263]
Hosein PJ, de Lima Lopes G Jr, Pastorini VH, et al. A phase II trial of nab-Paclitaxel as second-line therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 2013; 36(2): 151-6.
[] [PMID: 22307213]
Löhr JM, Haas SL, Bechstein WO, et al. Cationic liposomal paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled phase II trial. Ann Oncol 2012; 23(5): 1214-22.
[] [PMID: 21896540]
Saif MW, Podoltsev NA, Rubin MS, et al. Phase II clinical trial of paclitaxel loaded polymeric micelle in patients with advanced pancreat-ic cancer. Cancer Invest 2009; 28(2): 186-94.
[] [PMID: 19968498]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy