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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Mini-Review Article

Growth Hormone Excess: Implications and Management

Author(s): Suneela Dhaneshwar*, Shrishti Shandily and Vatsalya Tiwari

Volume 23, Issue 6, 2023

Published on: 29 December, 2022

Page: [748 - 763] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1871530322666221012155533

Price: $65


Acromegaly is described as the oversecretion of growth hormone (GH) and, subsequently, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), ascribed in most cases to a pituitary adenoma. This disease presents a progressive disfigurement, along with other systemic manifestations, which altogether diminishes the quality of life in the patients. Prolonged exposure to abnormally high levels of GH and IGF-1 levels results in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and pulmonary dysfunction which overall produces a fall in life expectancy. Timely diagnosis and further treatment decreased the mortality rate of the patients and showed an improvement in the quality of life. Surgical procedures, advanced radiation therapy tools, and the availability of pharmacological compounds that act on pituitary growth hormone-producing cells have enabled an improved approach to treating the disease. Pharmacological treatment is currently an important management option, and it may also be the first-line treatment in patients with acromegaly who do not benefit from or are ineligible for first-line surgical procedures. From its inception until 2021, we used a comprehensive search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases. All human research articles and review articles published in English were considered for the review. In this review, we describe the clinical implications and management of patients with acromegaly, consisting of scientific improvements underlying the developing understanding of pathogenesis and diagnosis, associated comorbidities and mortality rate with the disease, and major improvements in the treatment of the disease, along with novel strategies including quality of life and patient-reported outcomes.

Keywords: Growth hormone excess, acromegaly, somatotropinoma, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal surgery, insulin-like growth factor 1.

Graphical Abstract
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