Review Article

COVID-19 and Thrombosis: Clinical Aspects

Author(s): Tetsumei Urano*, Atsushi Yasumoto, Kenji Yokoyama, Hisanori Horiuchi, Eriko Morishita and Yuko Suzuki

Volume 23, Issue 17, 2022

Published on: 02 November, 2022

Page: [1567 - 1572] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1389450123666221005092350

open access plus


In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), thrombus formation is related to the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the progression of clinical symptoms. Severe damage to vascular endothelial cells and the associated cytokine storm after SARS-CoV-2 infection cause thrombogenesis and contribute to the development of more severe and unique thromboses compared to other infectious diseases. Thromboses occur more often in critically ill patients. In addition to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and aortic thrombosis have also been reported. In PE, thrombi develop in both pulmonary arteries and alveolar capillaries. These, together with intraalveolar fibrin deposition, interfere with effective gaseous exchange in the lungs and exacerbate the clinical symptoms of ARDS in patients with COVID-19. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is recommended for all hospitalized patients to prevent both thrombosis and aggravation of ARDS, and other organ failures. Although the pediatric population is mostly asymptomatic or develops mild disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection, a new inflammatory disorder affecting the cardiovascular system, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), has been reported. Similar to Kawasaki disease, acute myocarditis, coronary vasculitis, and aneurysms are typically seen in MISC, although these two are now considered distinct entities. A similar acute myocarditis is also observed in young male adults, in which a hyperinflammatory state after SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be involved. Several side effects following vaccination against COVID-19 have been reported, including vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia and acute myocarditis. Although these could be serious and life-threatening, the cases are very rare, thus, the benefits of immunization still outweigh the risks.

Keywords: COVID-19, thrombosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, low molecular weight heparin, myocarditis, vaccineinduced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

Graphical Abstract

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