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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Review Article

Promising Marine Natural Products for Tackling Viral Outbreaks: A Focus on Possible Targets and Structure-activity Relationship

Author(s): Mirnawati Salampe*, Sukamto Salang Mamada, Yayu Mulsiani Evary, Saikat Mitra, Talha Bin Emran, Harapan Harapan, Firzan Nainu* and Jesus Simal-Gandara*

Volume 23, Issue 14, 2023

Published on: 07 October, 2022

Page: [1352 - 1379] Pages: 28

DOI: 10.2174/1568026622666220831114838

Price: $65

Abstract

Recently, people worldwide have experienced several outbreaks caused by viruses that have attracted much interest globally, such as HIV, Zika, Ebola, and the one being faced, SARSCoV- 2 viruses. Unfortunately, the availability of drugs giving satisfying outcomes in curing those diseases is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to dig deeper to provide compounds that can tackle the causative viruses. Meanwhile, the efforts to explore marine natural products have been gaining great interest as the products have consistently shown several promising biological activities, including antiviral activity. This review summarizes some products extracted from marine organisms, such as seaweeds, seagrasses, sponges, and marine bacteria, reported in recent years to have potential antiviral activities tested through several methods. The mechanisms by which those compounds exert their antiviral effects are also described here, with several main mechanisms closely associated with the ability of the products to block the entry of the viruses into the host cells, inhibiting replication or transcription of the viral genetic material, and disturbing the assembly of viral components. In addition, the structure-activity relationship of the compounds is also highlighted by focusing on six groups of marine compounds, namely sulfated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, terpenoids, lectins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. In conclusion, due to their uniqueness compared to substances extracted from terrestrial sources, marine organisms provide abundant products having promising activities as antiviral agents that can be explored to tackle virus-caused outbreaks.

Keywords: HIV, Zika virus, Ebola virus, SARS-CoV-2, Marine natural products, Mechanism of action, Structure-activity relationship.

Graphical Abstract
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