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Current Neuropharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190


Triple Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Coexisting Bipolar and Alcohol Use Disorders: Clinical Aspects and Pharmacological Treatments

Author(s): Francesco Weiss*, Simone Tidona, Marco Carli, Giulio Perugi and Marco Scarselli*

Volume 21, Issue 7, 2023

Published on: 21 October, 2022

Page: [1467 - 1476] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X20666220830154002


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) are common medical conditions often coexisting and exerting mutual influence on disease course and pharmacological treatment response. Each disorder, when considered separately, relies on different therapeutic approaches, making it crucial to detect the plausible association between them. Treating solely the emerging condition (e.g., alcoholism) and disregarding the patient’s whole psychopathological ground often leads to treatment failure and relapse. Clinical experience and scientific evidence rather show that tailoring treatments for these three conditions considering their co-occurrence as a sole complex disorder yields more fulfilling and durable clinical outcomes. In light of the above considerations, the purpose of the present review is to critically discuss the pharmacological strategies in the personalized treatment of complex conditions defined by ADHD-bipolarityalcoholism coexistence.

Keywords: ADHD, alcohol use disorder, bipolar disorder, triple diagnosis, neurodevelopment, lithium, valproic acid.

Graphical Abstract
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