Generic placeholder image

Current Neuropharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Comorbidities in Youth with Bipolar Disorder: Clinical Features and Pharmacological Management

Author(s): Gianluca Sesso, Giulio Emilio Brancati and Gabriele Masi*

Volume 21, Issue 4, 2023

Published on: 10 October, 2022

Page: [911 - 934] Pages: 24

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X20666220706104117

Price: $65


Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly comorbid condition, and rates of cooccurring disorders are even higher in youth. Comorbid disorders strongly affect clinical presentation, natural course, prognosis, and treatment.

Methods: This review focuses on the clinical and treatment implications of the comorbidity between BD and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, disruptive behavior disorders (Oppositional Defiant Disorder and/or Conduct Disorder), alcohol and substance use disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder, anxiety disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and eating disorders.

Results: These associations define specific conditions which are not simply a sum of different clinical pictures, but occur as distinct and complex combinations with specific developmental pathways over time and selective therapeutic requirements. Pharmacological treatments can improve these clinical pictures by addressing the comorbid conditions, though the same treatments may also worsen BD by inducing manic or depressive switches.

Conclusion: The timely identification of BD comorbidities may have relevant clinical implications in terms of symptomatology, course, treatment and outcome. Specific studies addressing the pharmacological management of BD and comorbidities are still scarce, and information is particularly lacking in children and adolescents; for this reason, the present review also included studies conducted on adult samples. Developmentally-sensitive controlled clinical trials are thus warranted to improve the prognosis of these highly complex patients, requiring timely and finely personalized therapies.

Keywords: Bipolar disorder, adolescents, children, phenotype, pharmacotherapy, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics.

Graphical Abstract
Birmaher, B.; Axelson, D.; Strober, M.; Gill, M.K.; Valeri, S.; Chiappetta, L.; Ryan, N.; Leonard, H.; Hunt, J.; Iyengar, S.; Keller, M. Clinical course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2006, 63(2), 175-183.
[] [PMID: 16461861]
Carlson, G.A.; Pataki, C. Understanding Early Age of Onset: a Review of the Last 5 Years. Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 2016, 18(12), 114.
[] [PMID: 27830449]
Yapıcı Eser, H.; Taşkıran, A.S.; Ertınmaz, B.; Mutluer, T.; Kılıç, Ö.; Özcan Morey, A.; Necef, I.; Yalçınay İnan, M.; Öngür, D. Anxiety disorders comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder: a meta‐analysis and meta‐regression study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2020, 141(4), 327-339.
[] [PMID: 31899546]
Kirsch, A.C.; Huebner, A.R.S.; Mehta, S.Q.; Howie, F.R.; Weaver, A.L.; Myers, S.M.; Voigt, R.G.; Katusic, S.K. Association of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders with autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Pediatr., 2020, 174(1), 63-70.
[] [PMID: 31790555]
Masi, G.; Berloffa, S.; Mucci, M.; Pfanner, C.; D’Acunto, G.; Lenzi, F.; Liboni, F.; Manfredi, A.; Milone, A. A Naturalistic exploratory study of obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity in youth. J. Affect. Disord., 2018, 231, 21-26.
[] [PMID: 29408159]
Wozniak, J.; Wilens, T.; DiSalvo, M.; Farrell, A.; Wolenski, R.; Faraone, S.V.; Biederman, J. Comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2019, 139(4), 361-368.
[] [PMID: 30758064]
Brancati, G.E.; Perugi, G.; Milone, A.; Masi, G.; Sesso, G. Development of bipolar disorder in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. J. Affect. Disord., 2021, 293, 186-196.
[] [PMID: 34217137]
Masi, G.; Mucci, M.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Magazù, A.; Perugi, G. Developmental pathways for different subtypes of early-onset bipolarity in youths. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2012, 73(10), 1335-1341.
[] [PMID: 23058936]
Biederman, J.; Petty, C.R.; Monuteaux, M.C.; Evans, M.; Parcell, T.; Faraone, S.V.; Wozniak, J. The Child Behavior Checklist-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder profile predicts a subsequent diagnosis of bipolar disorder and associated impairments in ADHD youth growing up: a longitudinal analysis. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2009, 70(5), 732-740.
[] [PMID: 19389330]
Gross, J.J.; Jazaieri, H. Emotion, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. Clin. Psychol. Sci., 2014, 2(4), 387-401.
Sesso, G.; Milone, A.; Drago, F.; Viglione, V.; Berloffa, S.; Boldrini, S.; Loriaux, N.; Valente, E.; Molesti, A.; Placini, F.; Montesanto, A.R.; Pisano, S.; Masi, G. A novel multidimensional questionnaire for the assessment of emotional dysregulation in adolescents: Reactivity, Intensity, Polarity and Stability questionnaire-youth version (RIPoSt-Y). J. Affect. Disord., 2021, 291, 359-367.
[] [PMID: 34089928]
Perugi, G.; Hantouche, E.; Vannucchi, G.; Pinto, O. Cyclothymia reloaded: A reappraisal of the most misconceived affective disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 2015, 183, 119-133.
[] [PMID: 26005206]
Masi, G.; Sesso, G.; Pfanner, C.; Valente, E.; Molesti, A.; Placini, F.; Boldrini, S.; Loriaux, N.; Drago, F.; Montesanto, A.R.; Pisano, S.; Milone, A. An exploratory study of emotional dysregulation dimensions in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar spectrum disorders. Front. Psychiatry, 2021, 12, 619037.
[] [PMID: 33935827]
Faraone, S.V.; Rostain, A.L.; Blader, J.; Busch, B.; Childress, A.C.; Connor, D.F.; Newcorn, J.H. Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - implications for clinical recognition and intervention. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 2019, 60(2), 133-150.
[] [PMID: 29624671]
Tonacci, A.; Billeci, L.; Calderoni, S.; Levantini, V.; Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Pisano, S.; Muratori, P. Sympathetic arousal in children with oppositional defiant disorder and its relation to emotional dysregulation. J. Affect. Disord., 2019, 257, 207-213.
[] [PMID: 31301625]
Masi, G.; Muratori, P.; Manfredi, A.; Pisano, S.; Milone, A. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: Clinical correlates and treatment implications. Psychiatry Res., 2015, 225(1-2), 191-196.
[] [PMID: 25480545]
Sala, R.; Axelson, D.A.; Castro-Fornieles, J.; Goldstein, T.R.; Ha, W.; Liao, F.; Gill, M.K.; Iyengar, S.; Strober, M.A.; Goldstein, B.I.; Yen, S.; Hower, H.; Hunt, J.; Ryan, N.D.; Dickstein, D.; Keller, M.B.; Birmaher, B. Comorbid anxiety in children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders: prevalence and clinical correlates. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2010, 71(10), 1344-1350.
[] [PMID: 20868643]
Malhi, G.S.; Das, P.; Outhred, T.; Bell, E.; Gessler, D.; Mannie, Z. Irritability and mood symptoms in adolescent girls: Trait anxiety and emotion dysregulation as mediators. J. Affect. Disord., 2021, 282, 1170-1179.
[] [PMID: 33601692]
Hantouche, E.G.; Angst, J.; Demonfaucon, C.; Perugi, G.; Lancrenon, S.; Akiskal, H.S. Cyclothymic OCD: a distinct form? J. Affect. Disord., 2003, 75(1), 1-10.
[] [PMID: 12781344]
Joshi, G.; Wozniak, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Faraone, S.; Fried, R.; Galdo, M.; Furtak, S.L.; Conroy, K.; Kilcullen, J.R.; Belser, A.; Biederman, J. High Risk for Severe Emotional Dysregulation in Psychiatrically Referred Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Controlled Study. J. Autism Dev. Disord., 2018, 48(9), 3101-3115.
[] [PMID: 29675767]
Mazefsky, C.A.; Borue, X.; Day, T.N.; Minshew, N.J. Emotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms. Autism Res., 2014, 7(3), 344-354.
[] [PMID: 24610869]
McDonald, C.E.; Rossell, S.L.; Phillipou, A. The comorbidity of eating disorders in bipolar disorder and associated clinical correlates characterised by emotion dysregulation and impulsivity: A systematic review. J. Affect. Disord., 2019, 259, 228-243.
[] [PMID: 31446385]
Perugi, G.; Hantouche, E.; Vannucchi, G. Diagnosis and treatment of cyclothymia: the “primacy” of temperament. Curr. Neuropharmacol., 2017, 15(3), 372-379.
[] [PMID: 28503108]
Amerio, A.; Tonna, M.; Odone, A.; Stubbs, B.; Ghaemi, S.N. Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: Treatment implications. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry, 2016, 50(6), 594-596.
[] [PMID: 26480937]
Lolich, M.; Vázquez, G.H.; Alvarez, L.M.; Tamayo, J.M. Psychosocial interventions in bipolar disorder: a review. Actas Esp. Psiquiatr., 2012, 40(2), 84-92.
[PMID: 22508073]
Coplan, J.D.; Aaronson, C.J.; Panthangi, V.; Kim, Y. Treating comorbid anxiety and depression: Psychosocial and pharmacological approaches. World J. Psychiatry, 2015, 5(4), 366-378.
[] [PMID: 26740928]
Post, R.M.; Grunze, H. The challenges of children with bipolar disorder. Medicina (Kaunas), 2021, 57(6), 601.
[] [PMID: 34207966]
Merikangas, K.R.; He, J.; Burstein, M.; Swanson, S.A.; Avenevoli, S.; Cui, L.; Benjet, C.; Georgiades, K.; Swendsen, J. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. Adolescents: results from the national comorbidity survey replication--adolescent supplement (NCS-A). J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2010, 49(10), 980-989.
[] [PMID: 20855043]
Marangoni, C.; De Chiara, L.; Faedda, G.L. Bipolar disorder and ADHD: comorbidity and diagnostic distinctions. Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 2015, 17(8), 67.
[] [PMID: 26084666]
Skirrow, C.; Hosang, G.M.; Farmer, A.E.; Asherson, P. An update on the debated association between ADHD and bipolar disorder across the lifespan. J. Affect. Disord., 2012, 141(2-3), 143-159.
[] [PMID: 22633181]
Wingo, A.P.; Ghaemi, S.N. A systematic review of rates and diagnostic validity of comorbid adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2007, 68(11), 1776-1784.
[] [PMID: 18052572]
Donfrancesco, R.; Di Trani, M.; Andriola, E.; Leone, D.; Torrioli, M.G.; Passarelli, F.; DelBello, M.P. Bipolar disorder in children with ADHD: a clinical sample study. J. Atten. Disord., 2017, 21(9), 715-720.
[] [PMID: 25015582]
Kowatch, R.A.; Youngstrom, E.A.; Danielyan, A.; Findling, R.L. Review and meta-analysis of the phenomenology and clinical characteristics of mania in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disord., 2005, 7(6), 483-496.
[] [PMID: 16403174]
Merikangas, K.R.; Jin, R.; He, J.P.; Kessler, R.C.; Lee, S.; Sampson, N.A.; Viana, M.C.; Andrade, L.H.; Hu, C.; Karam, E.G.; Ladea, M.; Medina-Mora, M.E.; Ono, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Wells, J.E.; Zarkov, Z. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2011, 68(3), 241-251.
[] [PMID: 21383262]
Perugi, G.; Ceraudo, G.; Vannucchi, G.; Rizzato, S.; Toni, C.; Dell’Osso, L. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in Italian bipolar adult patients: A preliminary report. J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 149(1-3), 430-434.
[] [PMID: 23267727]
Pinna, M.; Visioli, C.; Rago, C.M.; Manchia, M.; Tondo, L.; Baldessarini, R.J. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in adult bipolar disorder patients. J. Affect. Disord., 2019, 243, 391-396.
[] [PMID: 30267955]
Sandstrom, A.; Perroud, N.; Alda, M.; Uher, R.; Pavlova, B. Prevalence of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in people with mood disorders: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2021, 143(5), 380-391.
[] [PMID: 33528847]
Chen, M.H.; Chen, Y.S.; Hsu, J.W.; Huang, K.L.; Li, C.T.; Lin, W.C.; Chang, W.H.; Chen, T.J.; Pan, T.L.; Su, T.P.; Bai, Y.M. Comorbidity of ADHD and subsequent bipolar disorder among adolescents and young adults with major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study. Bipolar Disord., 2015, 17(3), 315-322.
[] [PMID: 25295997]
Chen, M.H.; Su, T.P.; Chen, Y.S.; Hsu, J.W.; Huang, K.L.; Chang, W.H.; Chen, T.J.; Bai, Y.M. Higher risk of developing mood disorders among adolescents with comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorder: A nationwide prospective study. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2013, 47(8), 1019-1023.
[] [PMID: 23643104]
Meier, S.M.; Pavlova, B.; Dalsgaard, S.; Nordentoft, M.; Mors, O.; Mortensen, P.B.; Uher, R. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders as precursors of bipolar disorder onset in adulthood. Br. J. Psychiatry, 2018, 213(3), 555-560.
[] [PMID: 29925436]
Arnold, L.E.; Demeter, C.; Mount, K.; Frazier, T.W.; Youngstrom, E.A.; Fristad, M.; Birmaher, B.; Findling, R.L.; Horwitz, S.M.; Kowatch, R.; Axelson, D.A. Pediatric bipolar spectrum disorder and ADHD: comparison and comorbidity in the LAMS clinical sample. Bipolar Disord., 2011, 13(5-6), 509-521.
[] [PMID: 22017220]
Jerrell, J.M.; McIntyre, R.S.; Park, Y.M.M. Correlates of incident bipolar disorder in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2014, 75(11), e1278-e1283.
[] [PMID: 25470092]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Mucci, M.; Toni, C.; Bertini, N.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C. Developmental differences according to age at onset in juvenile bipolar disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2006, 16(6), 679-685.
[] [PMID: 17201612]
Perroud, N.; Cordera, P.; Zimmermann, J.; Michalopoulos, G.; Bancila, V.; Prada, P.; Dayer, A.; Aubry, J.M. Comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder in a specialized mood disorders outpatient clinic. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 168, 161-166.
[] [PMID: 25051093]
Fili, J.; Nojomi, M.; Razjouyan, K.; Kahdemi, M. Davari- Ashtiani, R. Association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Iran. J. Psychiatry, 2019, 14(3), 242-247.
[] [PMID: 31598128]
Lan, W.H.; Bai, Y.M.; Hsu, J.W.; Huang, K.L.; Su, T.P.; Li, C.T.; Yang, A.C.; Lin, W.C.; Chang, W.H.; Chen, T.J.; Tsai, S.J.; Chen, M.H. Comorbidity of ADHD and suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder: A nationwide longitudinal study. J. Affect. Disord., 2015, 176, 171-175.
[] [PMID: 25723560]
Bernardi, S.; Cortese, S.; Solanto, M.; Hollander, E.; Pallanti, S. Bipolar disorder and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A distinct clinical phenotype? Clinical characteristics and temperamental traits. World J. Biol. Psychiatry, 2010, 11(4), 656-666.
[] [PMID: 20353313]
Jhanda, S.; Malhotra, S.; Grover, S. Relationship between bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder: An exploratory study. Asian J. Psychiatr., 2018, 35, 101-108.
[] [PMID: 29859501]
Sentissi, O.; Navarro, J.C.; De Oliveira, H.; Gourion, D.; Bourdel, M.C.; Bayl’e, F.J.; Oli’e, J.P.; Poirier, M.F. Bipolar disorders and quality of life: the impact of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse in euthymic patients. Psychiatry Res., 2008, 161(1), 36-42.
[] [PMID: 18786727]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Millepiedi, S.; Mucci, M.; Bertini, N.; Pfanner, C. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - bipolar comorbidity in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disord., 2006, 8(4), 373-381.
[] [PMID: 16879138]
Yen, S.; Stout, R.; Hower, H.; Killam, M.A.; Weinstock, L.M.; Topor, D.R.; Dickstein, D.P.; Hunt, J.I.; Gill, M.K.; Goldstein, T.R.; Goldstein, B.I.; Ryan, N.D.; Strober, M.; Sala, R.; Axelson, D.A.; Birmaher, B.; Keller, M.B. The influence of comorbid disorders on the episodicity of bipolar disorder in youth. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2016, 133(4), 324-334.
[] [PMID: 26475572]
Craney, J.L.; Geller, B. A prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder-I phenotype: review of phenomenology and longitudinal course. Bipolar Disord., 2003, 5(4), 243-256.
[] [PMID: 12895202]
Mohr-Jensen, C.; Steinhausen, H.C. A meta-analysis and systematic review of the risks associated with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on long-term outcome of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 2016, 48, 32-42.
[] [PMID: 27390061]
Walsh, R.F.L.; Sheppard, B.; Cui, L.; Brown, C.; Van Meter, A.; Merikangas, K.R. Comorbidity and patterns of familial aggregation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder in a family study of affective and anxiety spectrum disorders. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2020, 130, 355-361.
[] [PMID: 32882577]
Consoli, A.; Bouzamondo, A.; Guilé, J.M.; Lechat, P.; Cohen, D. Comorbidity with ADHD decreases response to pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents with acute mania: evidence from a metaanalysis. Can. J. Psychiatry, 2007, 52(5), 323-328.
[] [PMID: 17542383]
Simon, N.M.; Otto, M.W.; Weiss, R.D.; Bauer, M.S.; Miyahara, S.; Wisniewski, S.R.; Thase, M.E.; Kogan, J.; Frank, E.; Nierenberg, A.A.; Calabrese, J.R.; Sachs, G.S.; Pollack, M.H. Pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and comorbid conditions: baseline data from STEP-BD. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2004, 24(5), 512-520.
[] [PMID: 15349007]
Nierenberg, A.A.; Miyahara, S.; Spencer, T.; Wisniewski, S.R.; Otto, M.W.; Simon, N.; Pollack, M.H.; Ostacher, M.J.; Yan, L.; Siegel, R.; Sachs, G.S. Clinical and diagnostic implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbidity in adults with bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 STEP-BD participants. Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 57(11), 1467-1473.
[] [PMID: 15950022]
Tamam, L. Tuğlu, C.; Karatas, G.; Ozcan, S. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with bipolar I disorder in remission: Preliminary study. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2006, 60(4), 480-485.
[] [PMID: 16884451]
Bond, D.J.; Hadjipavlou, G.; Lam, R.W.; McIntyre, R.S.; Beaulieu, S.; Schaffer, A.; Weiss, M. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry, 2012, 24(1), 23-37.
[PMID: 22303520]
Galanter, C.A.; Carlson, G.A.; Jensen, P.S.; Greenhill, L.L.; Davies, M.; Li, W.; Chuang, S.Z.; Elliott, G.R.; Arnold, L.E.; March, J.S.; Hechtman, L.; Pelham, W.E.; Swanson, J.M. Response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and manic symptoms in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder titration trial. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2003, 13(2), 123-136.
[] [PMID: 12880507]
Scheffer, R.E.; Kowatch, R.A.; Carmody, T.; Rush, A.J. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mixed amphetamine salts for symptoms of comorbid ADHD in pediatric bipolar disorder after mood stabilization with divalproex sodium. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2005, 162(1), 58-64.
[] [PMID: 15625202]
Armstrong, C.; Kapolowicz, M.R. Mixed amphetamine salts without a mood stabilizer for treating comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: two case reports. Mil. Med., 2021, usab305.
[] [PMID: 34318326]
Hah, M.; Chang, K. Atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2005, 15(6), 996-1004.
[] [PMID: 16379520]
Chang, K.; Nayar, D.; Howe, M.; Rana, M. Atomoxetine as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar I or II disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2009, 19(5), 547-551.
[] [PMID: 19877979]
Hutchison, S.L.; Ghuman, J.K.; Ghuman, H.S.; Karpov, I.; Schuster, J.M. Efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with common comorbidities in children, adolescents and adults: a review. Ther. Adv. Psychopharmacol., 2016, 6(5), 317-334.
[] [PMID: 27721971]
Perugi, G.; Vannucchi, G. The use of stimulants and atomoxetine in adults with comorbid ADHD and bipolar disorder. Expert Opin. Pharmacother., 2015, 16(14), 2193-2204.
[] [PMID: 26364896]
Nemeth, D.G.; Mckenzie Chustz, K. 132 Treating Comorbid Childhood Bipolar Disorder and ADHD. CNS Spectr., 2020, 25(2), 283-284.
Perugi, G.; Vannucchi, G.; Bedani, F.; Favaretto, E. Use of Stimulants in Bipolar Disorder. Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 2017, 19(1), 7.
[] [PMID: 28144880]
Soutullo, C.A.; DelBello, M.P.; Ochsner, J.E.; McElroy, S.L.; Taylor, S.A.; Strakowski, S.M.; Keck, P.E., Jr Severity of bipolarity in hospitalized manic adolescents with history of stimulant or antidepressant treatment. J. Affect. Disord., 2002, 70(3), 323-327.
[] [PMID: 12128245]
Viktorin, A.; Rydén, E.; Thase, M.E.; Chang, Z.; Lundholm, C.; D’Onofrio, B.M.; Almqvist, C.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Larsson, H.; Landén, M. The risk of treatment-emergent mania with methylphenidate in bipolar disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2017, 174(4), 341-348.
[] [PMID: 27690517]
Man, K.K.C.; Coghill, D.; Chan, E.W.; Lau, W.C.Y.; Hollis, C.; Liddle, E.; Banaschewski, T.; McCarthy, S.; Neubert, A.; Sayal, K.; Ip, P.; Schuemie, M.J.; Sturkenboom, M.C.J.M.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Buitelaar, J.; Carucci, S.; Zuddas, A.; Kovshoff, H.; Garas, P.; Nagy, P.; Inglis, S.K.; Konrad, K.; Häge, A.; Rosenthal, E.; Wong, I.C.K. Association of risk of suicide attempt with methylphenidate treatment. JAMA Psychiatry, 2017, 74(10), 1048-1055.
[] [PMID: 28746699]
Chen, Q.; Sjölander, A.; Runeson, B.; D’Onofrio, B.M.; Lichtenstein, P.; Larsson, H. Drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study. BMJ, 2014, 348, g3769.
[] [PMID: 24942388]
Liang, S.H.Y.; Yang, Y.H.; Kuo, T.Y.; Liao, Y.T.; Lin, T.C.; Lee, Y.; McIntyre, R.S.; Kelsen, B.A.; Wang, T.N.; Chen, V.C.H. Suicide risk reduction in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prescribed methylphenidate: A Taiwan nationwide population-based cohort study. Res. Dev. Disabil., 2018, 72, 96-105.
[] [PMID: 29121517]
Öhlund, L.; Ott, M.; Lundqvist, R.; Sandlund, M.; Salander, R.E.; Werneke, U. Suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour in patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after initiation of central stimulant treatment: a mirror-image study based on the LiSIE retrospective cohort. Ther. Adv. Psychopharmacol., 2020, 10.
[] [PMID: 32843959]
Reed, V.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Anand, E.; Day, K.A.; Treuer, T.; Upadhyaya, H.P.; Coghill, D.R.; Kryzhanovskaya, L.A.; Savill, N.C. The safety of atomoxetine for the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a comprehensive review of over a decade of research. CNS Drugs, 2016, 30(7), 603-628.
[] [PMID: 27290715]
Panei, P.; Arcieri, R.; Bonati, M.; Bugarini, M.; Didoni, A.; Germinario, E. Safety of psychotropic drug prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Italy. Adverse Drug React. Bull., 2010, 260, 999-1002.
Wang, L.J.; Shyu, Y.C.; Yuan, S.S.; Yang, C.J.; Yang, K.C.; Lee, T.L.; Lee, S.Y. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, its pharmacotherapy, and the risk of developing bipolar disorder: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2016, 72, 6-14.
[] [PMID: 26519764]
Lenzi, F.; Cortese, S.; Harris, J.; Masi, G. Pharmacotherapy of emotional dysregulation in adults with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 2018, 84, 359-367.
[] [PMID: 28837827]
Biederman, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Woodworth, K.Y.; Yule, A.; Noyes, E.; Biederman, I.; Faraone, S.V.; Wilens, T.; Wozniak, J. Does the course of manic symptoms in pediatric bipolar disorder impact the course of conduct disorder? Findings from four prospective datasets. J. Affect. Disord., 2018, 238, 244-249.
[] [PMID: 29890451]
Biederman, J.; Faraone, S.; Chu, M.P.; Wozniak, J. Further evidence of a bidirectional overlap between juvenile mania and conduct disorder in children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1999, 38(4), 468-476.
[] [PMID: 10199120]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Manfredi, A.; Pari, C.; Paziente, A.; Millepiedi, S. Comorbidity of conduct disorder and bipolar disorder in clinically referred children and adolescents. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2008, 18(3), 271-279.
[] [PMID: 18582182]
Vitiello, B.; Stoff, D.M. Subtypes of aggression and their relevance to child psychiatry. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1997, 36(3), 307-315.
[] [PMID: 9055510]
DelBello, M.P.; Hanseman, D.; Adler, C.M.; Fleck, D.E.; Strakowski, S.M. Twelve-month outcome of adolescents with bipolar disorder following first hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2007, 164(4), 582-590.
[] [PMID: 17403971]
Doyle, A.E.; Faraone, S.V. Familial links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and bipolar disorder. Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 2002, 4(2), 146-152.
[] [PMID: 11914177]
Biederman, J.; Faraone, S.V.; Hatch, M.; Mennin, D.; Taylor, A.; George, P. Conduct disorder with and without mania in a referred sample of ADHD children. J. Affect. Disord., 1997, 44(2-3), 177-188.
[] [PMID: 9241578]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Millepiedi, S.; Mucci, M.; Bertini, N.; Akiskal, H.S. Predictors of treatment nonresponse in bipolar children and adolescents with manic or mixed episodes. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2004, 14(3), 395-404.
[] [PMID: 15650495]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Mucci, M.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C.; Gagliano, A.; D’Amico, F.; Akiskal, H.S. Pharmacological response in juvenile bipolar disorder subtypes: A naturalistic retrospective examination. Psychiatry Res., 2010, 177(1-2), 192-198.
[] [PMID: 20381170]
West, A.E.; Weinstein, S.M.; Celio, C.I.; Henry, D.; Pavuluri, M.N. Co-morbid disruptive behavior disorder and aggression predict functional outcomes and differential response to risperidone versus divalproex in pharmacotherapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2011, 21(6), 545-553.
[] [PMID: 22136096]
Balia, C.; Carucci, S.; Coghill, D.; Zuddas, A. The pharmacological treatment of aggression in children and adolescents with conduct disorder. Do callous—unemotional traits modulate the efficacy of medication? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 2018, 91, 218-238.
[] [PMID: 28137460]
Pisano, S.; Pozzi, M.; Catone, G.; Scrinzi, G.; Clementi, E.; Coppola, G.; Milone, A.; Bravaccio, C.; Santosh, P.; Masi, G. Putative Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Use of Lithium in Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review. Curr. Neuropharmacol., 2019, 17(4), 318-341.
[] [PMID: 29256353]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Manfredi, A.; Pari, C.; Paziente, A.; Millepiedi, S. Effectiveness of lithium in children and adolescents with conduct disorder: a retrospective naturalistic study. CNS Drugs, 2009, 23(1), 59-69.
[] [PMID: 19062775]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Veltri, S.; Iuliano, R.; Pfanner, C.; Pisano, S. Use of quetiapine in children and adolescents. Paediatr. Drugs, 2015, 17(2), 125-140.
[] [PMID: 25686575]
Masi, G.; Pisano, S.; Pfanner, C.; Milone, A.; Manfredi, A. Quetiapine monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder comorbid with conduct disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 23(8), 568-571.
[] [PMID: 24138010]
Masi, G.; Milone, A.; Stawinoga, A.; Veltri, S.; Pisano, S. Efficacy and safety of risperidone and quetiapine in adolescents with bipolar II disorder comorbid with conduct disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2015, 35(5), 587-590.
[] [PMID: 26226481]
Ceylan, M.F.; Erdogan, B.; Tural Hesapcioglu, S.; Cop, E. Effectiveness, adverse effects and drug compliance of long-acting injectable risperidone in children and adolescents. Clin. Drug Investig., 2017, 37(10), 947-956.
[] [PMID: 28726075]
Chengappa, K.R.; Levine, J.; Gershon, S.; Kupfer, D.J. Lifetime prevalence of substance or alcohol abuse and dependence among subjects with bipolar I and II disorders in a voluntary registry. Bipolar Disord., 2000, 2(3), 191-195.
[] [PMID: 11256686]
Grant, B.F.; Stinson, F.S.; Dawson, D.A.; Chou, S.P.; Dufour, M.C.; Compton, W.; Pickering, R.P.; Kaplan, K. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2004, 61(8), 807-816.
[] [PMID: 15289279]
Tohen, M.; Greenfield, S.F.; Weiss, R.D.; Zarate, C.A., Jr; Vagge, L.M. The effect of comorbid substance use disorders on the course of bipolar disorder: a review. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry, 1998, 6(3), 133-141.
[] [PMID: 10372281]
Perlis, R.H.; Miyahara, S.; Marangell, L.B.; Wisniewski, S.R.; Ostacher, M.; DelBello, M.P.; Bowden, C.L.; Sachs, G.S.; Nierenberg, A.A. Long-Term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol. Psychiatry, 2004, 55(9), 875-881.
[] [PMID: 15110730]
Goldstein, B.I.; Levitt, A.J. Further evidence for a developmental subtype of bipolar disorder defined by age at onset: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2006, 163(9), 1633-1636.
[] [PMID: 16946191]
Kenneson, A.; Funderburk, J.S.; Maisto, S.A. Risk factors for secondary substance use disorders in people with childhood and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder: Opportunities for prevention. Compr. Psychiatry, 2013, 54(5), 439-446.
[] [PMID: 23332720]
Wilens, T.; Biederman, J.; Millstein, R.B.; Wozniak, J.; Hahesy, A.L.; Spencer, T.J. Risk for substance use disorders in youths with child- and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1999, 38(6), 680-685.
[] [PMID: 10361785]
Wilens, T.; Biederman, J.; Kwon, A.; Ditterline, J.; Forkner, P.; Moore, H.; Swezey, A.; Snyder, L.; Henin, A.; Wozniak, J.; Faraone, S. Risk of substance use disorders in adolescents with bipolar disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2004, 43(11), 1380-1386.
[] [PMID: 15502597]
Goldstein, B.I.; Bukstein, O.G. Comorbid substance use disorders among youth with bipolar disorder: opportunities for early identification and prevention. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2010, 71(3), 348-358.
[] [PMID: 19961811]
Goldstein, B.I.; Strober, M.; Axelson, D.; Goldstein, T.R.; Gill, M.K.; Hower, H.; Dickstein, D.; Hunt, J.; Yen, S.; Kim, E.; Ha, W.; Liao, F.; Fan, J.; Iyengar, S.; Ryan, N.D.; Keller, M.B.; Birmaher, B. Predictors of first-onset substance use disorders during the prospective course of bipolar spectrum disorders in adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2013, 52(10), 1026-1037.
[] [PMID: 24074469]
Stephens, J.R.; Heffner, J.L.; Adler, C.M.; Blom, T.J.; Anthenelli, R.M.; Fleck, D.E.; Welge, J.A.; Strakowski, S.M.; DelBello, M.P. Risk and protective factors associated with substance use disorders in adolescents with first-episode mania. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2014, 53(7), 771-779.
[] [PMID: 24954826]
Geller, B.; Tillman, R.; Bolhofner, K.; Zimerman, B. Child bipolar I disorder: prospective continuity with adult bipolar I disorder; characteristics of second and third episodes; predictors of 8-year outcome. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2008, 65(10), 1125-1133.
[] [PMID: 18838629]
Wilens, T.E.; Biederman, J.; Martelon, M.; Zulauf, C.; Anderson, J.P.; Carrellas, N.W.; Yule, A.; Wozniak, J.; Fried, R.; Faraone, S.V. Further Evidence for Smoking and Substance Use Disorders in Youth With Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Conduct Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2016, 77(10), 1420-1427.
[] [PMID: 27574842]
Wilens, T.E.; Biederman, J.; Adamson, J.J.; Henin, A.; Sgambati, S.; Gignac, M.; Sawtelle, R.; Santry, A.; Monuteaux, M.C. Further evidence of an association between adolescent bipolar disorder with smoking and substance use disorders: A controlled study. Drug Alcohol Depend., 2008, 95(3), 188-198.
[] [PMID: 18343050]
Dilsaver, S.C.; Akiskal, H.S.; Akiskal, K.K.; Benazzi, F. Dose-response relationship between number of comorbid anxiety disorders in adolescent bipolar/unipolar disorders, and psychosis, suicidality, substance abuse and familiality. J. Affect. Disord., 2006, 96(3), 249-258.
[] [PMID: 16904187]
Schulze, T.G.; Hedeker, D.; Zandi, P.; Rietschel, M.; McMahon, F.J. What is familial about familial bipolar disorder? Resemblance among relatives across a broad spectrum of phenotypic characteristics. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2006, 63(12), 1368-1376.
[] [PMID: 17146011]
Goldstein, B.I.; Strober, M.A.; Birmaher, B.; Axelson, D.A.; Esposito-Smythers, C.; Goldstein, T.R.; Leonard, H.; Hunt, J.; Gill, M.K.; Iyengar, S.; Grimm, C.; Yang, M.; Ryan, N.D.; Keller, M.B. Substance use disorders among adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Bipolar Disord., 2008, 10(4), 469-478.
[] [PMID: 18452443]
Hulvershorn, L.A.; King, J.; Monahan, P.O.; Wilcox, H.C.; Mitchell, P.B.; Fullerton, J.M.; Edenberg, H.J.; Roberts, G.M.P.; Kamali, M.; Glowinski, A.L.; Ghaziuddin, N.; McInnis, M.; Iyer-Eimerbrink, P.A.; Nurnberger, J.I., Jr Substance use disorders in adolescent and young adult relatives of probands with bipolar disorder: What drives the increased risk? Compr. Psychiatry, 2017, 78, 130-139.
[] [PMID: 28843850]
Wilens, T.E.; Yule, A.; Martelon, M.; Zulauf, C.; Faraone, S.V. Parental history of substance use disorders (SUD) and SUD in offspring: A controlled family study of bipolar disorder. Am. J. Addict., 2014, 23(5), 440-446.
[] [PMID: 24628811]
Horwitz, S.M.; Storfer-Isser, A.; Young, A.S.; Youngstrom, E.A.; Taylor, H.G.; Frazier, T.W.; Arnold, L.E.; Fristad, M.A.; Birmaher, B.; Findling, R.L. Development of Alcohol and Drug Use in Youth With Manic Symptoms. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2017, 56(2), 149-156.
[] [PMID: 28117061]
Steinbuchel, P.H.; Wilens, T.E.; Adamson, J.J.; Sgambati, S. Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder in adolescent bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord., 2009, 11(2), 198-204.
[] [PMID: 19267702]
Duffy, A.; Horrocks, J.; Milin, R.; Doucette, S.; Persson, G.; Grof, P. Adolescent substance use disorder during the early stages of bipolar disorder: A prospective high-risk study. J. Affect. Disord., 2012, 142(1-3), 57-64.
[] [PMID: 22959686]
Kuhns, L.; Kroon, E.; Colyer-Patel, K.; Cousijn, J. Associations between cannabis use, cannabis use disorder, and mood disorders: longitudinal, genetic, and neurocognitive evidence. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 2022, 239(5), 1231-1249.
[] [PMID: 34741634]
Hawton, K.; Sutton, L.; Haw, C.; Sinclair, J.; Harriss, L. Suicide and attempted suicide in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of risk factors. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2005, 66(6), 693-704.
[] [PMID: 15960561]
Elizabeth Sublette, M.; Carballo, J.J.; Moreno, C.; Galfalvy, H.C.; Brent, D.A.; Birmaher, B.; John Mann, J.; Oquendo, M.A. Substance use disorders and suicide attempts in bipolar subtypes. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2009, 43(3), 230-238.
[] [PMID: 18590916]
Oquendo, M.A.; Currier, D.; Liu, S.M.; Hasin, D.S.; Grant, B.F.; Blanco, C. Increased risk for suicidal behavior in comorbid bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2010, 71(7), 902-909.
[] [PMID: 20667292]
Potash, J.B.; Kane, H.S.; Chiu, Y.; Simpson, S.G.; MacKinnon, D.F.; McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; DePaulo, J.R., Jr Attempted suicide and alcoholism in bipolar disorder: clinical and familial relationships. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2000, 157(12), 2048-2050.
[] [PMID: 11097977]
Leite, R.T.P.; Nogueira, S.O.; Nascimento, J.P.R.; Lima, L.S.; Nóbrega, T.B.; Virgínio, M.S.; Moreno, L.M.C.; Sampaio, B.H.B.; Souza, F.G.M. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts. Neural Plast., 2015, 2015, 1-13.
[] [PMID: 26097750]
Kelly, T.M.; Cornelius, J.R.; Lynch, K.G. Psychiatric and substance use disorders as risk factors for attempted suicide among adolescents: a case control study. Suicide Life Threat. Behav., 2002, 32(3), 301-312.
[] [PMID: 12374475]
Lewinsohn, P.M.; Klein, D.N.; Seeley, J.R. Bipolar disorders in a community sample of older adolescents: prevalence, phenomenology, comorbidity, and course. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1995, 34(4), 454-463.
[] [PMID: 7751259]
Merikangas, K.R.; Herrell, R.; Swendsen, J.; Rössler, W.; Ajdacic-Gross, V.; Angst, J. Specificity of bipolar spectrum conditions in the comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders: results from the Zurich cohort study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2008, 65(1), 47-52.
[] [PMID: 18180428]
Holtmann, M.; Buchmann, A.F.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.H.; Banaschewski, T.; Laucht, M. The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile predicts substance use, suicidality, and functional impairment: a longitudinal analysis. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 2011, 52(2), 139-147.
[] [PMID: 20854363]
Salloum, I.M.; Brown, E.S. Management of comorbid bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2017, 43(4), 366-376.
[] [PMID: 28301219]
Geller, B.; Cooper, T.B.; Sun, K.; Zimerman, B.; Frazier, J.; Williams, M.; Heath, J. Double-blind and placebo-controlled study of lithium for adolescent bipolar disorders with secondary substance dependency. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1998, 37(2), 171-178.
[] [PMID: 9473913]
Grunze, H.; Schaefer, M.; Scherk, H.; Born, C.; Preuss, U.W. Comorbid Bipolar and Alcohol Use Disorder—A Therapeutic Challenge. Front. Psychiatry, 2021, 12, 660432.
[] [PMID: 33833701]
Brown, E.S.; Garza, M.; Carmody, T.J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on trial of quetiapine in outpatients with bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2008, 69(5), 701-705.
[] [PMID: 18312058]
Sherwood Brown, E.; McArdle, M.; Palka, J.; Bice, C.; Ivleva, E.; Nakamura, A.; McNutt, M.; Patel, Z.; Holmes, T.; Tipton, S. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study of ondansetron for bipolar and related disorders and alcohol use disorder. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2021, 43, 92-101.
[] [PMID: 33402258]
Anton, R.F.; Kranzler, H.; Breder, C.; Marcus, R.N.; Carson, W.H.; Han, J. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole for the treatment of alcohol dependence. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2008, 28(1), 5-12.
[] [PMID: 18204334]
Brown, E.S.; Carmody, T.J.; Schmitz, J.M.; Caetano, R.; Adinoff, B.; Swann, A.C.; Rush, A.J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of naltrexone in outpatients with bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 2009, 33(11), 1863-1869.
[] [PMID: 19673746]
Tolliver, B.K.; DeSantis, S.M.; Brown, D.G.; Prisciandaro, J.J.; Brady, K.T. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of acamprosate in alcohol-dependent individuals with bipolar disorder: a preliminary report. Bipolar Disord., 2012, 14(1), 54-63.
[] [PMID: 22329472]
Brown, E.S.; Gorman, A.R.; Hynan, L.S. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citicoline add-on therapy in outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2007, 27(5), 498-502.
[] [PMID: 17873684]
Brown, E.S.; Todd, J.P.; Hu, L.T.; Schmitz, J.M.; Carmody, T.J.; Nakamura, A.; Sunderajan, P.; Rush, A.J.; Adinoff, B.; Bret, M.E.; Holmes, T.; Lo, A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of citicoline for cocaine dependence in bipolar i disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2015, 172(10), 1014-1021.
[] [PMID: 25998279]
Prisciandaro, J.J.; Mellick, W.; Squeglia, L.M.; Hix, S.; Arnold, L.; Tolliver, B.K. Results from a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, crossover, multimodal‐MRI pilot study of gabapentin for co‐occurring bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Addict. Biol., 2022, 27(1), e13085.
[] [PMID: 34390300]
Lorberg, B.; Wilens, T.E.; Martelon, M.; Wong, P.; Parcell, T. Reasons for substance use among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Am. J. Addict., 2010, 19(6), 474-480.
[] [PMID: 20958841]
Ghaziuddin, M.; Ghaziuddin, N. Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis in Autism. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2021, 44(1), 1-9.
[] [PMID: 33526231]
Munesue, T.; Ono, Y.; Mutoh, K.; Shimoda, K.; Nakatani, H.; Kikuchi, M. High prevalence of bipolar disorder comorbidity in adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A preliminary study of 44 outpatients. J. Affect. Disord., 2008, 111(2-3), 170-175.
[] [PMID: 18378000]
Margari, L.; Palumbi, R.; Peschechera, A.; Craig, F.; de Giambattista, C.; Ventura, P.; Margari, F. Sex-gender comparisons in comorbidities of children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Front. Psychiatry, 2019, 10, 159.
[] [PMID: 30971962]
Rosenberg, R.E.; Kaufmann, W.E.; Law, J.K.; Law, P.A. Parent report of community psychiatric comorbid diagnoses in autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res. Treat., 2011, 2011, 1-10.
[] [PMID: 22937248]
Vannucchi, G.; Masi, G.; Toni, C.; Dell’Osso, L.; Erfurth, A.; Perugi, G. Bipolar disorder in adults with Asperger׳s Syndrome: a systematic review. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 168, 151-160.
[] [PMID: 25046741]
Joshi, G.; Biederman, J.; Wozniak, J.; Doyle, R.; Hammerness, P.; Galdo, M.; Sullivan, N.; Williams, C.; Brethel, K.; Woodworth, K.Y.; Mick, E. Response to second generation antipsychotics in youth with comorbid bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorder. CNS Neurosci. Ther., 2012, 18(1), 28-33.
[] [PMID: 21114638]
Okada, Y.; Miyawaki, D.; Kusaka, H.; Asada, N.; Iwakura, Y.; Yanagihara, E.; Asada, N.; Kanemoto, E.; Terakawa, H.; Inoue, K. Subclinical Manic Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Osaka City Med. J., 2016, 62(2), 103-110.
[PMID: 30721585]
Vannucchi, G.; Masi, G.; Toni, C.; Dell’Osso, L.; Marazziti, D.; Perugi, G. Clinical features, developmental course, and psychiatric comorbidity of adult autism spectrum disorders. CNS Spectr., 2014, 19(2), 157-164.
[] [PMID: 24352005]
Sapmaz, D.; Baykal, S. Akbaş S. The Clinical Features of Comorbid Pediatric Bipolar Disorder in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J. Autism Dev. Disord., 2018, 48(8), 2800-2808.
[] [PMID: 29564681]
Gupta, S.; Caskey, A.; Soares, N.; Augustyn, M. Autism spectrum disorder and mental health comorbidity leading to prolonged inpatient admission. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr., 2018, 39(6), 523-525.
[] [PMID: 30045160]
Mazzone, L.; Postorino, V.; Valeri, G.; Vicari, S. Catatonia in patients with autism: prevalence and management. CNS Drugs, 2014, 28(3), 205-215.
[] [PMID: 24504828]
Park, S.E.; Grados, M.; Wachtel, L.; Kaji, S. Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Autism. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2021, 44(1), 23-33.
[] [PMID: 33526235]
Berloffa, S.; Dosi, C.; Tascini, B.; Fossati, B.; Lupetti, I.; Masi, G. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Case Report and Brief Review of Recent Literature. Children (Basel), 2021, 8(12), 1201.
[] [PMID: 34943397]
Borue, X.; Mazefsky, C.; Rooks, B.T.; Strober, M.; Keller, M.B.; Hower, H.; Yen, S.; Gill, M.K.; Diler, R.S.; Axelson, D.A.; Goldstein, B.I.; Goldstein, T.R.; Ryan, N.; Liao, F.; Hunt, J.I.; Dickstein, D.P.; Birmaher, B. Longitudinal Course of Bipolar Disorder in Youth With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2016, 55(12), 1064-1072.e6.
[] [PMID: 27871641]
Takara, K.; Kondo, T. Comorbid atypical autistic traits as a potential risk factor for suicide attempts among adult depressed patients: a case-control study. Ann. Gen. Psychiatry, 2014, 13(1), 33.
[] [PMID: 25328535]
Masi, G.; Scullin, S.; Narzisi, A.; Muratori, P.; Paciello, M.; Fabiani, D.; Lenzi, F.; Mucci, M.; D’Acunto, G. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in referred adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid bipolar disorder: A pilot study. Brain Sci., 2020, 10(10), 750.
[] [PMID: 33080887]
Volkmar, F.; Siegel, M.; Woodbury-Smith, M.; King, B.; McCracken, J.; State, M. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2014, 53(2), 237-257.
[] [PMID: 24472258]
Fallah, M.S.; Shaikh, M.R.; Neupane, B.; Rusiecki, D.; Bennett, T.A.; Beyene, J. Atypical Antipsychotics for Irritability in Pediatric Autism: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2019, 29(3), 168-180.
[] [PMID: 30707602]
Fung, L.K.; Mahajan, R.; Nozzolillo, A.; Bernal, P.; Krasner, A.; Jo, B.; Coury, D.; Whitaker, A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J.; Hardan, A.Y. Pharmacologic Treatment of Severe Irritability and Problem Behaviors in Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 2016, 137(Suppl. 2), S124-S135.
[] [PMID: 26908468]
Doyle, C.A.; McDougle, C.J. Pharmacotherapy to control behavioral symptoms in children with autism. Expert Opin. Pharmacother., 2012, 13(11), 1615-1629.
[] [PMID: 22550944]
Alfageh, B.H.; Wang, Z.; Mongkhon, P.; Besag, F.M.C.; Alhawassi, T.M.; Brauer, R.; Wong, I.C.K. Safety and Tolerability of Antipsychotic Medication in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Paediatr. Drugs, 2019, 21(3), 153-167.
[] [PMID: 31134563]
Mintz, M.; Hollenberg, E. Revisiting lithium: utility for behavioral stabilization in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 2019, 49(2), 28-40.
[PMID: 31308580]
Hollander, E.; Chaplin, W.; Soorya, L.; Wasserman, S.; Novotny, S.; Rusoff, J.; Feirsen, N.; Pepa, L.; Anagnostou, E. Divalproex sodium vs placebo for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2010, 35(4), 990-998.
[] [PMID: 20010551]
Dineen Wagner, K. Bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2006, 67(Suppl. 1), 16-20.
[PMID: 16426112]
Masi, G.; Toni, C.; Perugi, G.; Mucci, M.; Millepiedi, S.; Akiskal, H.S. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a neglected comorbidity. Can. J. Psychiatry, 2001, 46(9), 797-802.
[] [PMID: 11761630]
Castilla-Puentes, R.; Sala, R.; Ng, B.; Galvez, J.; Camacho, A. Anxiety disorders and rapid cycling: data from a cohort of 8129 youths with bipolar disorder. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 2013, 201(12), 1060-1065.
[] [PMID: 24284641]
Ayano, G.; Betts, K.; Maravilla, J.C.; Alati, R. The risk of anxiety disorders in children of parents with severe psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Affect. Disord., 2021, 282, 472-487.
[] [PMID: 33422825]
Duffy, A.; Goodday, S.; Keown-Stoneman, C.; Grof, P. The emergent course of bipolar disorder: Observations over two decades from the Canadian high-risk offspring cohort. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2019, 176(9), 720-729.
[] [PMID: 30525908]
Duffy, A.; Alda, M.; Hajek, T.; Sherry, S.B.; Grof, P. Early stages in the development of bipolar disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 2010, 121(1-2), 127-135.
[] [PMID: 19541368]
Yapici Eser, H.; Kacar, A.S.; Kilciksiz, C.M.; Yalçinay-Inan, M.; Ongur, D. Prevalence and associated features of anxiety disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression study. Front. Psychiatry, 2018, 9, 229.
[] [PMID: 29997527]
Henin, A.; Biederman, J.; Mick, E.; Sachs, G.S.; Hirshfeld-Becker, D.R.; Siegel, R.S.; McMurrich, S.; Grandin, L.; Nierenberg, A.A. Psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a controlled study. Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 58(7), 554-561.
[] [PMID: 16112654]
Perugi, G.; Akiskal, H.S.; Toni, C.; Simonini, E.; Gemignani, A. The temporal relationship between anxiety disorders and (hypo)mania: a retrospective examination of 63 panic, social phobic and obsessive-compulsive patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 2001, 67(1-3), 199-206.
[] [PMID: 11869769]
Himmelhoch, J.M. Social anxiety, hypomania and the bipolar spectrum: data, theory and clinical issues. J. Affect. Disord., 1998, 50(2-3), 203-213.
[] [PMID: 9858079]
Valença, A.M.; Nardi, A.E.; Nascimento, I.; Lopes, F.L.; Freire, R.C.; Mezzasalma, M.A.; Veras, A.B.; Versiani, M. Do social anxiety disorder patients belong to a bipolar spectrum subgroup? J. Affect. Disord., 2005, 86(1), 11-18.
[] [PMID: 15820266]
Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Akiskal, H.S. Anxious-bipolar comorbidity. Diagnostic and treatment challenges. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 1999, 22(3), 565-583. viii.
[] [PMID: 10550856]
Simon, N.M.; Otto, M.W.; Fischmann, D.; Racette, S.; Nierenberg, A.A.; Pollack, M.H.; Smoller, J.W. Panic disorder and bipolar disorder: Anxiety sensitivity as a potential mediator of panic during manic states. J. Affect. Disord., 2005, 87(1), 101-105.
[] [PMID: 15894380]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Toni, C.; Mucci, M.; Bertini, N.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C.; Akiskal, K.; Akiskal, H.S. Clinical and research implications of panic-bipolar comorbidity in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res., 2007, 153(1), 47-54.
[] [PMID: 17602754]
Lövdahl, H.; Andersson, S.; Hynnekleiv, T.; Malt, U.F. The phenomenology of recurrent brief depression with and without hypomanic features. J. Affect. Disord., 2009, 112(1-3), 151-164.
[] [PMID: 18538858]
Akiskal, H.S.; Akiskal, K.K.; Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Ruffolo, G.; Tusini, G. Bipolar II and anxious reactive “comorbidity”: Toward better phenotypic characterization suitable for genotyping. J. Affect. Disord., 2006, 96(3), 239-247.
[] [PMID: 16973219]
Otto, M.W.; Simon, N.M.; Wisniewski, S.R.; Miklowitz, D.J.; Kogan, J.N.; Reilly-Harrington, N.A.; Frank, E.; Nierenberg, A.A.; Marangell, L.B.; Sagduyu, K.; Weiss, R.D.; Miyahara, S.; Thase, M.E.; Sachs, G.S.; Pollack, M.H. Prospective 12-month course of bipolar disorder in out-patients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders. Br. J. Psychiatry, 2006, 189(1), 20-25.
[] [PMID: 16816301]
Simon, N.M.; Otto, M.W.; Wisniewski, S.R.; Fossey, M.; Sagduyu, K.; Frank, E.; Sachs, G.S.; Nierenberg, A.A.; Thase, M.E.; Pollack, M.H. Anxiety disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder patients: data from the first 500 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Am. J. Psychiatry, 2004, 161(12), 2222-2229.
[] [PMID: 15569893]
Inoue, T.; Kimura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Shirakawa, O. Prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders and their associated factors in patients with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat., 2020, 16, 1695-1704.
[] [PMID: 32764945]
Lee, J.H.; Dunner, D.L. The effect of anxiety disorder comorbidity on treatment resistant bipolar disorders. Depress. Anxiety, 2008, 25(2), 91-97.
[] [PMID: 17311265]
Dickstein, D.P.; Rich, B.A.; Binstock, A.B.; Pradella, A.G.; Towbin, K.E.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E. Comorbid anxiety in phenotypes of pediatric bipolar disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2005, 15(4), 534-548.
[] [PMID: 16190786]
Janardhan Reddy, Y.C.; Ratheesh, A.; Srinath, S.; Girimaji, S.; Seshadri, S.; Thennarasu, K.; Hutin, Y. Are anxiety disorders associated with a more severe form of bipolar disorder in adolescents? Indian J. Psychiatry, 2011, 53(4), 312-318.
[] [PMID: 22303039]
Amuk, O.C.; Patel, R.S. Comorbid anxiety increases suicidal risk in bipolar depression: analysis of 9720 adolescent inpatients. Behav. Sci. (Basel), 2020, 10(7), 108.
[] [PMID: 32635572]
Sala, R.; Strober, M.A.; Axelson, D.A.; Gill, M.K.; Castro-Fornieles, J.; Goldstein, T.R.; Goldstein, B.I.; Ha, W.; Liao, F.; Iyengar, S.; Yen, S.; Hower, H.; Hunt, J.; Dickstein, D.P.; Ryan, N.D.; Keller, M.B.; Birmaher, B. Effects of comorbid anxiety disorders on the longitudinal course of pediatric bipolar disorders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2014, 53(1), 72-81.
[] [PMID: 24342387]
Sheehan, D.V.; McElroy, S.L.; Harnett-Sheehan, K.; Keck, P.E., Jr; Janavs, J.; Rogers, J.; Gonzalez, R.; Shivakumar, G.; Suppes, T. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for acute treatment of bipolar anxiety. J. Affect. Disord., 2009, 115(3), 376-385.
[] [PMID: 19042026]
Suppes, T.; McElroy, S.L.; Sheehan, D.V.; Hidalgo, R.B.; Cosgrove, V.E.; Gwizdowski, I.S.; Feldman, N.S. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ziprasidone monotherapy in bipolar disorder with co-occurring lifetime panic or generalized anxiety disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2014, 75(1), 77-84.
[] [PMID: 24345758]
Maina, G.; Albert, U.; Rosso, G.; Bogetto, F. Olanzapine or lamotrigine addition to lithium in remitted bipolar disorder patients with anxiety disorder comorbidity: a randomized, single-blind, pilot study. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2008, 69(4), 609-616.
[] [PMID: 18294024]
Sheehan, D.V.; Harnett-Sheehan, K.; Hidalgo, R.B.; Janavs, J.; McElroy, S.L.; Amado, D.; Suppes, T. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine XR and divalproex ER monotherapies in the treatment of the anxious bipolar patient. J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 145(1), 83-94.
[] [PMID: 22920718]
Shayegan, D.K.; Stahl, S.M. Atypical antipsychotics: matching receptor profile to individual patient’s clinical profile. CNS Spectr., 2004, 9(S11)(Suppl. 11), 6-14.
[] [PMID: 15475871]
Cullen, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Umer, M.; Abdolizadeh, A.; Husain, M.O.; Bonato, S.; Sharma, G.; Xue, S.; Ortiz, A.; Kloiber, S.M.; Mulsant, B.H.; Husain, M.I. Efficacy and acceptability of pharmacotherapy for comorbid anxiety symptoms in bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Bipolar Disord., 2021, 23(8), 754-766.
[] [PMID: 34506075]
Sala, R.; Axelson, D.A.; Castro-Fornieles, J.; Goldstein, T.R.; Goldstein, B.I.; Ha, W.; Liao, F.; Gill, M.K.; Iyengar, S.; Strober, M.A.; Yen, S.; Hower, H.; Hunt, J.I.; Dickstein, D.P.; Ryan, N.D.; Keller, M.B.; Birmaher, B. Factors associated with the persistence and onset of new anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar spectrum disorders. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2012, 73(1), 87-94.
[] [PMID: 22226375]
Faedda, G.L.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Glovinsky, I.P.; Austin, N.B. Treatment-emergent mania in pediatric bipolar disorder: a retrospective case review. J. Affect. Disord., 2004, 82(1), 149-158.
[] [PMID: 15465590]
Pande, A.C.; Davidson, J.R.T.; Jefferson, J.W.; Janney, C.A.; Katzelnick, D.J.; Weisler, R.H.; Greist, J.H.; Sutherland, S.M. Treatment of social phobia with gabapentin: a placebo-controlled study. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 1999, 19(4), 341-348.
[] [PMID: 10440462]
Pande, A.C.; Pollack, M.H.; Crockatt, J.; Greiner, M.; Chouinard, G.; Lydiard, R.B.; Taylor, C.B.; Dager, S.R.; Shiovitz, T. Placebo-controlled study of gabapentin treatment of panic disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2000, 20(4), 467-471.
[] [PMID: 10917408]
Vázquez, G.H.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Tondo, L. Co-occurrence of anxiety and bipolar disorders: clinical and therapeutic overview. Depress. Anxiety, 2014, 31(3), 196-206.
[] [PMID: 24610817]
Deltito, J.A.; Levitan, J.; Damore, J.; Hajal, F.; Zambenedetti, M. Naturalistic experience with the use of divalproex sodium on an in-patient unit for adolescent psychiatric patients. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 1998, 97(3), 236-240.
[] [PMID: 9543314]
Demonfaucon, C.; Hantouche, E.G. Approche dimensionnelle des rapports entre TOC et bipolarité: interactions entre émotivité, impulsivité et lenteur, place fondamentale de la symétrie. Synapse, 2001, 180.
Demonfaucon, C.; Hantouche, E.G. Autour de la comorbidité entre TOC et trouble bipolaire: historique et enquêtes récentes. Nervure, 2001, 9-15.
Chen, Y.W.; Dilsaver, S.C. Comorbidity for obsessive-compulsive disorder in bipolar and unipolar disorders. Psychiatry Res., 1995, 59(1-2), 57-64.
[] [PMID: 8771221]
Amerio, A.; Stubbs, B.; Odone, A.; Tonna, M.; Marchesi, C.; Ghaemi, S.N. The prevalence and predictors of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Affect. Disord., 2015, 186, 99-109.
[] [PMID: 26233320]
Bramante, S.; Quarato, F. Mehanović E.; Rigardetto, S.; Maina, G. The forbidden thoughts dimension and psychiatric comorbidities in a large sample of OCD patients: A possible link to bipolar I comorbid disorder. J. Obsessive Compuls. Relat. Disord., 2021, 29, 100642.
Amerio, A.; Odone, A.; Liapis, C.C.; Ghaemi, S.N. Diagnostic validity of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2014, 129(5), 343-358.
[] [PMID: 24506190]
Braverman, L.; Fuchs, C.; Weizman, A.; Poyurovsky, M. Elevated rate of OCD-spectrum and tic disorders in patients with bipolar depression and comorbid OCD. J. Obsessive Compuls. Relat. Disord., 2021, 29, 100643.
Maina, G.; Albert, U.; Pessina, E.; Bogetto, F. Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders. Bipolar Disord., 2007, 9(7), 722-729.
[] [PMID: 17988362]
Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Frare, F.; Travierso, M.C.; Hantouche, E.; Akiskal, H.S. Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar comorbidity. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2002, 63(12), 1129-1134.
[] [PMID: 12523872]
Perugi, G.; Akiskal, H.S.; Gemignani, A.; Pfanner, C.; Presta, S.; Milanfranchi, A.; Lensi, P.; Ravagli, S.; Maremmani, I.; Cassano, G.B. Episodic course in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 1998, 248(5), 240-244.
[] [PMID: 9840370]
Perugi, G.; Akiskal, H.S.; Pfanner, C.; Presta, S.; Gemignani, A.; Milanfranchi, A.; Lensi, P.; Ravagli, S.; Cassano, G.B. The clinical impact of bipolar and unipolar affective comorbidity on obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 1997, 46(1), 15-23.
[] [PMID: 9387083]
Tükel, R.; Oflaz, S.B. Özyıldırım, İ.; Aslantaş B.; Ertekin, E.; Sözen, A.; Alyanak, F.; Atlı H. Comparison of clinical characteristics in episodic and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress. Anxiety, 2007, 24(4), 251-255.
[] [PMID: 17006935]
Mahasuar, R.; Janardhan Reddy, Y.C.; Math, S.B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2011, 65(5), 423-433.
[] [PMID: 21851451]
Zutshi, A.; Kamath, P.; Reddy, Y.C.J. Bipolar and nonbipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical exploration. Compr. Psychiatry, 2007, 48(3), 245-251.
[] [PMID: 17445518]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Toni, C.; Mucci, M.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C.; Akiskal, H.S. Bipolar co-morbidity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and treatment implications. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2007, 17(4), 475-486.
[] [PMID: 17822342]
Joshi, G.; Wozniak, J.; Petty, C.; Vivas, F.; Yorks, D.; Biederman, J.; Geller, D. Clinical characteristics of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disord., 2010, 12(2), 185-195.
[] [PMID: 20402711]
Masi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Perugi, G.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C.; Mucci, M.; Akiskal, H.S. A naturalistic exploratory study of the impact of demographic, phenotypic and comorbid features in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopathology, 2010, 43(2), 69-78.
[] [PMID: 20068377]
Koyuncu, A.; Tükel, R. Özyıldırım, İ.; Meteris, H.; Yazıcı O. Impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity on the sociodemographic and clinical features of patients with bipolar disorder. Compr. Psychiatry, 2010, 51(3), 293-297.
[] [PMID: 20399339]
Goes, F.S.; McCusker, M.G.; Bienvenu, O.J.; MacKinnon, D.F.; Mondimore, F.M.; Schweizer, B.; DePaulo, J.R., Jr; Potash, J.B. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder and major depression: familial aggregation and clinical characteristics of co-morbid panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol. Med., 2012, 42(7), 1449-1459.
[] [PMID: 22099954]
Issler, C.K.; Monkul, E.S.; Amaral, J.A.M.S.; Tamada, R.S.; Shavitt, R.G.; Miguel, E.C.; Lafer, B. Bipolar disorder and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with higher rates of anxiety and impulse control disorders. Acta Neuropsychiatr., 2010, 22(2), 81-86.
[] [PMID: 25385033]
Masi, G.; Perugi, G.; Toni, C.; Millepiedi, S.; Mucci, M.; Bertini, N.; Akiskal, H.S. Obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity: focus on children and adolescents. J. Affect. Disord., 2004, 78(3), 175-183.
[] [PMID: 15013241]
Cederlöf, M.; Lichtenstein, P.; Larsson, H.; Boman, M.; Rück, C.; Landén, M.; Mataix-Cols, D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis, and bipolarity: A longitudinal cohort and multigenerational family study. Schizophr. Bull., 2015, 41(5), 1076-1083.
[] [PMID: 25512596]
Hofer, P.D.; Wahl, K.; Meyer, A.H.; Miché, M.; Beesdo-Baum, K.; Wong, S.F.; Grisham, J.R.; Wittchen, H.U.; Lieb, R. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the risk of subsequent mental disorders: A community study of adolescents and young adults. Depress. Anxiety, 2018, 35(4), 339-345.
[] [PMID: 29489041]
Geller, D.A.; Biederman, J.; Griffin, S.; Jones, J.; Lefkowitz, T.R. Comorbidity of juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder with disruptive behavior disorders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1996, 35(12), 1637-1646.
[] [PMID: 8973071]
Çelebi, F.; Koyuncu, A.; Ertekin, E.; Alyanak, B.; Tükel, R. The features of comorbidity of childhood ADHD in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. J. Atten. Disord., 2020, 24(7), 973-980.
[] [PMID: 27650395]
Masi, G.; Millepiedi, S.; Perugi, G.; Pfanner, C.; Berloffa, S.; Pari, C.; Mucci, M. Pharmacotherapy in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a naturalistic, retrospective study. CNS Drugs, 2009, 23(3), 241-252.
[] [PMID: 19320532]
Papolos, D.; Hennen, J.; Cockerham, M. Obsessive fears about harm to self or others and overt aggressive behaviors in youth diagnosed with juvenile-onset bipolar disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 2005, 89(1-3), 99-105.
[] [PMID: 16194571]
Papolos, D.; Mattis, S.; Golshan, S.; Molay, F. Fear of harm, a possible phenotype of pediatric bipolar disorder: A dimensional approach to diagnosis for genotyping psychiatric syndromes. J. Affect. Disord., 2009, 118(1-3), 28-38.
[] [PMID: 19631388]
Papolos, D.; Frei, M.; Rossignol, D.; Mattis, S.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.C.; Teicher, M.H. Clinical experience using intranasal ketamine in the longitudinal treatment of juvenile bipolar disorder with fear of harm phenotype. J. Affect. Disord., 2018, 225, 545-551.
[] [PMID: 28866299]
Sahraian, A.; Jahromi, L.R.; Ghanizadeh, A.; Mowla, A. Memantine as an Adjuvant Treatment for Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Manic Phase of Bipolar Disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2017, 37(2), 246-249.
[] [PMID: 28099183]
Sahraian, A.; Bigdeli, M.; Ghanizadeh, A.; Akhondzadeh, S. Topiramate as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 166, 201-205.
[] [PMID: 25012432]
Amerio, A.; Maina, G.; Ghaemi, S.N. Updates in treating comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review. J. Affect. Disord., 2019, 256, 433-440.
[] [PMID: 31234022]
Amerio, A.; Odone, A.; Marchesi, C.; Ghaemi, S.N. Treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 166, 258-263.
[] [PMID: 25012439]
Jeon, S.; Baek, J.H.; Yang, S.Y.; Choi, Y.; Ahn, S.W.; Ha, K.; Hong, K.S. Exploration of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with bipolar disorder: The clinic-based prevalence rate, symptoms nature and clinical correlates. J. Affect. Disord., 2018, 225, 227-233.
[] [PMID: 28841485]
Joshi, G.; Mick, E.; Wozniak, J.; Geller, D.; Park, J.; Strauss, S.; Biederman, J. Impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder on the antimanic response to olanzapine therapy in youth with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord., 2010, 12(2), 196-204.
[] [PMID: 20402712]
Marazziti, D.; Pfanner, C.; Dell’osso, B.; Ciapparelli, A.; Presta, S.; Corretti, G.; Di Nasso, E.; Mungai, F.; Dell’osso, L. Augmentation strategy with olanzapine in resistant obsessive compulsive disorder: an Italian long-term open-label study. J. Psychopharmacol., 2005, 19(4), 392-394.
[] [PMID: 15982994]
Pfanner, C.; Marazziti, D. DellʼOsso, L.; Presta, S.; Gemignani, A.; Milanfranchi, A.; Cassano, G.B. Risperidone augmentation in refractory obsessive—compulsive disorder: an open-label study. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2000, 15(5), 297-301.
[] [PMID: 10993132]
Sahraian, A.; Ehsaei, Z.; Mowla, A. Aripiprazole as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive and compulsive symptoms in manic phase of bipolar disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled clinical trial. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiat., 2018, 84(Pt A), 267-271.
[] [PMID: 29544694]
Fornaro, M.; Daray, F.M.; Hunter, F.; Anastasia, A.; Stubbs, B.; De Berardis, D.; Shin, J.I.; Husain, M.I.; Dragioti, E.; Fusar-Poli, P.; Solmi, M.; Berk, M.; Vieta, E.; Carvalho, A.F. The prevalence, odds and predictors of lifespan comorbid eating disorder among people with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorders, and viceversa: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Affect. Disord., 2021, 280(Pt A), 409-431.
[] [PMID: 33227671]
Duncan, A.E.; Ziobrowski, H.N.; Nicol, G. The Prevalence of Past 12-Month and Lifetime DSM-IV Eating Disorders by BMI Category in US Men and Women. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev., 2017, 25(3), 165-171.
[] [PMID: 28127825]
Kessler, R.C.; Berglund, P.A.; Chiu, W.T.; Deitz, A.C.; Hudson, J.I.; Shahly, V.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.C.; Benjet, C.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Maria Haro, J.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sasu, C.; Scott, K.; Viana, M.C.; Xavier, M. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Biol. Psychiatry, 2013, 73(9), 904-914.
[] [PMID: 23290497]
McElroy, S.L.; Crow, S.; Blom, T.J.; Biernacka, J.M.; Winham, S.J.; Geske, J.; Cuellar-Barboza, A.B.; Bobo, W.V.; Prieto, M.L.; Veldic, M.; Mori, N.; Seymour, L.R.; Bond, D.J.; Frye, M.A. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder. J. Affect. Disord., 2016, 191, 216-221.
[] [PMID: 26682490]
McElroy, S.L.; Kotwal, R.; Keck, P.E., Jr; Akiskal, H.S. Comorbidity of bipolar and eating disorders: distinct or related disorders with shared dysregulations? J. Affect. Disord., 2005, 86(2-3), 107-127.
[] [PMID: 15935230]
McElroy, S.L.; Kotwal, R.; Keck, P.E., Jr Comorbidity of eating disorders with bipolar disorder and treatment implications. Bipolar Disord., 2006, 8(6), 686-695.
[] [PMID: 17156155]
Lewinsohn, P.M.; Shankman, S.A.; Gau, J.M.; Klein, D.N. The prevalence and co-morbidity of subthreshold psychiatric conditions. Psychol. Med., 2004, 34(4), 613-622.
[] [PMID: 15099416]
Serra, G.; Koukopoulos, A.; De Chiara, L.; Napoletano, F.; Koukopoulos, A.E.; Curto, M.; Manfredi, G.; Faedda, G.; Girardi, P.; Baldessarini, R.J. Features preceding diagnosis of bipolar versus major depressive disorders. J. Affect. Disord., 2015, 173, 134-142.
[] [PMID: 25462407]
Loftus, J.; Scott, J.; Vorspan, F.; Icick, R.; Henry, C.; Gard, S.; Kahn, J.P.; Leboyer, M.; Bellivier, F.; Etain, B. Psychiatric comorbidities in bipolar disorders: An examination of the prevalence and chronology of onset according to sex and bipolar subtype. J. Affect. Disord., 2020, 267, 258-263.
[] [PMID: 32217226]
Jen, A.; Saunders, E.F.H.; Ornstein, R.M.; Kamali, M.; McInnis, M.G. Impulsivity, anxiety, and alcohol misuse in bipolar disorder comorbid with eating disorders. Int. J. Bipolar Disord., 2013, 1(1), 13.
[] [PMID: 25505680]
Tseng, M.C.M.; Chang, C.H.; Liao, S.C.; Chen, H.C. Comparison of associated features and drug treatment between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in depressed eating disorder patients. BMC Psychiatry, 2017, 17(1), 81.
[] [PMID: 28241886]
Winham, S.J.; Cuellar-Barboza, A.B.; McElroy, S.L.; Oliveros, A.; Crow, S.; Colby, C.L.; Choi, D.S.; Chauhan, M.; Frye, M.A.; Biernacka, J.M. Bipolar disorder with comorbid binge eating history: A genome-wide association study implicates APOB. J. Affect. Disord., 2014, 165, 151-158.
[] [PMID: 24882193]
Kluge, M.; Schuld, A.; Himmerich, H.; Dalal, M.; Schacht, A.; Wehmeier, P.M.; Hinze-Selch, D.; Kraus, T.; Dittmann, R.W.; Pollmächer, T. Clozapine and olanzapine are associated with food craving and binge eating: results from a randomized double-blind study. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2007, 27(6), 662-666.
[] [PMID: 18004133]
Fraguas, D.; Correll, C.U.; Merchán-Naranjo, J.; Rapado-Castro, M.; Parellada, M.; Moreno, C.; Arango, C. Efficacy and safety of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders: Comprehensive review of prospective head-to-head and placebo-controlled comparisons. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2011, 21(8), 621-645.
[] [PMID: 20702068]
McElroy, S.L.; Guerdjikova, A.I.; Mori, N.; Keck, P.E., Jr Psychopharmacologic treatment of eating disorders: emerging findings. Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 2015, 17(5), 35.
[] [PMID: 25796197]
Díaz-Caneja, C.M.; Moreno, C.; Llorente, C.; Espliego, A.; Arango, C.; Moreno, D. Practitioner Review: Long-term pharmacological treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 2014, 55(9), 959-980.
[] [PMID: 24905547]
Cervesi, C.; Park, S.Y.; Galling, B.; Molteni, S.; Masi, G.; Gerhard, T.; Olfson, M.; Correll, C.U. Extent, time course, and moderators of antipsychotic treatment in youth with mood disorders. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2017, 78(3), 347-357.
[] [PMID: 28068462]
Dold, M.; Aigner, M.; Klabunde, M.; Treasure, J.; Kasper, S. Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs in Anorexia Nervosa: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Psychother. Psychosom., 2015, 84(2), 110-116.
[] [PMID: 25722106]
Lebow, J.; Sim, L.A.; Erwin, P.J.; Murad, M.H. The effect of atypical antipsychotic medications in individuals with anorexia nervosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2013, 46(4), 332-339.
[] [PMID: 23001863]
Lis, M. Stańczykiewicz, B.; Liśkiewicz, P.; Misiak, B. Impaired hormonal regulation of appetite in schizophrenia: A narrative review dissecting intrinsic mechanisms and the effects of antipsychotics. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2020, 119, 104744.
[] [PMID: 32534330]
Wildes, J.E.; Marcus, M.D.; Fagiolini, A. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorder co-morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res., 2008, 161(1), 51-58.
[] [PMID: 18782643]
Mcintyre, R.; Konarski, J.; Misener, V.; Kennedy, S. Bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment implications. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry, 2005, 17(2), 83-93.
[] [PMID: 16075661]
Correll, C.U.; Solmi, M.; Veronese, N.; Bortolato, B.; Rosson, S.; Santonastaso, P.; Thapa-Chhetri, N.; Fornaro, M.; Gallicchio, D.; Collantoni, E.; Pigato, G.; Favaro, A.; Monaco, F.; Kohler, C.; Vancampfort, D.; Ward, P.B.; Gaughran, F.; Carvalho, A.F.; Stubbs, B. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large-scale meta-analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls. World Psychiatry, 2017, 16(2), 163-180.
[] [PMID: 28498599]
Zhu, A.J.; Walsh, B.T. Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders. Can. J. Psychiatry, 2002, 47(3), 227-234.
[] [PMID: 11987473]
Carter, W.P.; Hudson, J.I.; Lalonde, J.K.; Pindyck, L.; McElroy, S.L.; Pope, H.G., Jr Pharmacologic treatment of binge eating disorder. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2003, 34(S1)(Suppl.), S74-S88.
[] [PMID: 12900988]
Couturier, J.; Isserlin, L.; Spettigue, W.; Norris, M. Psychotropic Medication for Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am., 2019, 28(4), 583-592.
[] [PMID: 31443877]
Gracious, B.L.; Fontanella, C.A.; Phillips, G.S.; Bridge, J.A.; Marcus, S.C.; Campo, J.V. Antidepressant Exposure and Risk of Fracture Among Medicaid-Covered Youth. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2016, 77(7), 950-956.
[] [PMID: 27314252]
Baldessarini, R.J.; Faedda, G.L.; Offidani, E.; Vázquez, G.H.; Marangoni, C.; Serra, G.; Tondo, L. Antidepressant-associated mood-switching and transition from unipolar major depression to bipolar disorder: A review. J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 148(1), 129-135.
[] [PMID: 23219059]
Fornaro, M.; Anastasia, A.; Novello, S.; Fusco, A.; Solmi, M.; Veronese, N.; De Berardis, D.; de Bartolomeis, A. Incidence, prevalence and clinical correlates of antidepressant-emergent mania in bipolar depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bipolar Disord., 2018, 20(3), 195-227.
[] [PMID: 29441650]
Anestis, M.D.; Peterson, C.B.; Bardone-Cone, A.M.; Klein, M.H.; Mitchell, J.E.; Crosby, R.D.; Wonderlich, S.A.; Crow, S.J.; le Grange, D.; Joiner, T.E. Affective lability and impulsivity in a clinical sample of women with bulimia nervosa: The role of affect in severely dysregulated behavior. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2009, 42(3), 259-266.
[] [PMID: 18951460]
Gross, H.A.; Ebert, M.H.; Faden, V.B.; Goldberg, S.C.; Nee, L.; Kaye, W.H. A Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Lithium Carbonate in Primary Anorexia Nervosa. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 1981, 1(6), 376-381.
George Hsu, L.K.; Clement, L.; Santhouse, R.; Ju, E.S. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with lithium carbonate. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1991, 179(6), 351-355.
Kaplan, A.S.; Garfinkel, P.E.; Darby, P.L.; Garner, D.M. Carbamazepine in the treatment of bulimia. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1983, 140(9), 1225-1226.
[] [PMID: 6577802]
Kotwal, R.; Guerdjikova, A.; McElroy, S.L.; Keck, P.E., Jr Lithium augmentation of topiramate for bipolar disorder with comorbid binge eating disorder and obesity. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 2006, 21(7), 425-431.
[] [PMID: 16941522]
Hoopes, S.P.; Reimherr, F.W.; Hedges, D.W.; Rosenthal, N.R.; Kamin, M.; Karim, R.; Capece, J.A.; Karvois, D. Treatment of bulimia nervosa with topiramate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, part 1: improvement in binge and purge measures. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2003, 64(11), 1335-1341.
[] [PMID: 14658948]
McElroy, S.L.; Arnold, L.M.; Shapira, N.A.; Keck, P.E., Jr; Rosenthal, N.R.; Karim, M.R.; Kamin, M.; Hudson, J.I. Topiramate in the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2003, 160(2), 255-261.
[] [PMID: 12562571]
Wozniak, J.; Mick, E.; Waxmonsky, J.; Kotarski, M.; Hantsoo, L.; Biederman, J. Comparison of open-label, 8-week trials of olanzapine monotherapy and topiramate augmentation of olanzapine for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2009, 19(5), 539-545.
[] [PMID: 19877978]
Pigott, K.; Galizia, I.; Vasudev, K.; Watson, S.; Geddes, J.; Young, A.H. Topiramate for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder in adults. Cochrane Libr., 2016, 2016(9), CD003384.
[] [PMID: 27591453]
Tamada, R.S.; Amaral, J.A.M.S.; Issler, C.K.; Lafer, B. Treatment emergent affective switch with topiramate. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 2006, 28(2), 158-158.
[] [PMID: 16810403]
McElroy, S.L.; Kotwal, R.; Guerdjikova, A.I.; Welge, J.A.; Nelson, E.B.; Lake, K.A.; D’Alessio, D.A.; Keck, P.E., Jr; Hudson, J.I. Zonisamide in the treatment of binge eating disorder with obesity: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2006, 67(12), 1897-1906.
[] [PMID: 17194267]
Idini, E.; Buj-Alvarez, I.; Pifarre-Paradero, J.; Rodriguez-Picasso, S.; Castan-Campanera, E. Patients with eating disorders (ED) treated with Zonisamide. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 2011, 33(4), 418-419.
[] [PMID: 22189936]
Dauphinais, D.; Knable, M.; Rosenthal, J.; Polanski, M.; Rosenthal, N. Zonisamide for bipolar disorder, mania or mixed states: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled adjunctive trial. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 2011, 44(1), 5-17.
[PMID: 22506436]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy