Background: Over the past few years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been regarded as effective for treating various diseases. Among the types of MSCs, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have been widely studied because of their advantages in non-invasive damage to donors and the wide range of sources.
Main body: This article reviews three aspects of hUC-MSCs. Foremost are the latest advances in the cultivation and preparation methods of hUC-MSCs. Furthermore, the treatments mechanism of hUCMSCs in organ transplantation and liver diseases. Finally, a summary of their use in clinical trials in liver diseases. The first part of this paper emphasizes the differences between the selection area and culture factors, including the separation method, long-term culturing in vitro, medium composition, serum, and three-dimensional (3D) skeleton system training, which could affect the characteristics of hUC-MSCs and the treatment of diseases. The second section mainly stresses the mechanisms of hUC-MSCs in the treatment of diseases, including immunoregulation and transdifferentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. Many new technologies mark and track cells in vivo and their safety. Briefly mention its role in the treatment of other diseases and vaccine preparation. In the third part, to accelerate the application of hUC-MSCs in the treatment of clinical diseases, it is necessary to expand the sample size of clinical trials to ensure their safety in the human body and determine the most effective infusion method and volume. Conclusion: hUC-MSCs have a substantial potential to become a more effective treatment for liver diseases. Clinical trials and mechanisms have laid the foundation for the normalization of clinical hUC-MSCs delivery.
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