Aim: Several new dihydropyridine-based calcium channel blockers have been synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated for the treatment of hypertension
Background: Dihydropyridines constitute an important class of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) due to their high potency, wide heterogeneity and tremendous biological usefulness. As a follow-up to our previous studies on 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines as calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension, four new series of methyl ethyl ester substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines are reported.
Objectives: The aim of the work was to study the effects of unsymmetrical ester substitutions on calcium channel blocking activity of dihydropyridines (DHPs) while retaining the aminoalkoxy side chain at various positions of the 4-aryl ring. The type and location of the substituents on the 4-aryl ring have been extensively explored to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in this series of dihydropyridines as calcium channel blockers.
Methodology: The target DHPs were synthesized using modified Hantzsch condensation and further derivatization. The compounds were screened for their inhibitory potential against L-type calcium channels at a single concentration of 10 μM on NG108-15 cells (Neuroblastoma X Glioma). The most potent DHP 12 was also tested for its vasodilatory activity using rat thoracic aortic rings precontracted with KCl (30 mM) and in vivo antihypertensive activity in rats using the tail-cuff method.
Results: The newly synthesized DHPs displayed diversified calcium channel blocking activity with compounds 1e, 1h, 2d, 2f, 2h, 6, 9, 11, 12 and 14, producing more than 50% inhibition of veratridine response. 3-imidazolylpropoxy substituted analogue 12 turned out to be the most potent compound of the four series of compounds and produced fairly higher inhibition (78.6%) of veratridine response in comparison to nifedipine (70%) at 10 μM. In addition, compound 12 produced potent vasodilatory and antihypertensive properties.
Conclusion: Both location of the side chain and the type of substituent on methyl ethyl ester substituted 4-aryl ring affected the response of dihydropyridine derivatives towards L-type calcium channels.
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