Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a diverse collection of malignancies with varying histological characteristics, molecular changes, prognosis, and therapeutic response. Tivozanib was first approved in March 2021 by USFDA with the brand name Fotivda. Tivozanib hydrochloride monohydrate is an oral medication that is used to treat relapsed or refractory renal cell carcinoma.
Objective: In this review, we explain renal cell carcinoma and its different types of treatment by the anti-renal carcinoma drugs.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the relevant databases, like ScienceDirect, PubMed, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar, to identify the studies.
Conclusion: Tivozanib is an oral VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is extremely selective and powerful. It has much less affinity for other receptor tyrosine kinases than multi-targeted TKIs now in clinical use. Because of its long half-life in circulation, it may be able to block VEGFRs more consistently. Doserelated controllable hypertension is its most commonly seen drug-related side event. Fatigue, hoarseness, and diarrhea, which are all common side effects, are not dose-related. Because of its target specificity, tivozanib can work well with other medications that have low side effects. Blocking both the VEGF and mTOR signaling pathways at the same time provides the benefit of synergistic antitumor efficacy while also preventing treatment resistance. Thus, overall we can say that the drug tivozanib is suitable for treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma and can be investigated in multi-center clinical trials.
Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), angiogenesis, tivozanib, malignancies.