Generic placeholder image

Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5265
ISSN (Online): 2212-3989

Review Article

Epidemiological Study of COVID-19 in Iran and the World: A Review Study

Author(s): Nasges Ansari, Samira Shokri, Mohadeseh Pirhadi, Saber Abbaszadeh and Aliasghar Manouchehri*

Volume 22, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 17 August, 2022

Article ID: e260522205318 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1871526522666220526165012

Price: $65


COVID-19 is a new virus of the Coronaviridae family that is now spreading worldwide. Therefore, disseminating information about patients with the virus can help identify the virus, pathogenesis, and find treatments. The current study aimed to review the new coronavirus (COVID-19). To reach this aim, we searched keywords containing COVID-19, coronavirus, respiratory infection, epidemiology in Pub Med, Web of Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Databases, and Google scholar. The results of our search led to the achievement of articles on the study of COVID-19. Based on the results of the study, COVID-19 is a global transmitter with rapid transmission power for which no specific drug has yet been found to treat it. The rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus, the relationship between disease severity and mortality with various factors, respiratory transmission, especially in the short distance, masks, hand washing, and physical distance observance as the most important way to prevent, diversify clinical symptoms and at the same time fever and cough as the most common clinical symptoms, treatment with non-specific antiviral drugs and treatment based on controlling clinical symptoms and strengthening immunity with known drugs, paying attention to children as asymptomatic carriers, and pretentious pregnancy in the event of COVID-19 are the most important findings of this study. The case fatality rate of COVID-19 has varied from 0.08% to 10.8% in the world, but fortunately, the number of patients who have recovered is very promising and more than 66 million people have recovered. There is still no effective drug or vaccine to prevent the disease and investigation in this field is ongoing. The only way to prevent and control the disease is adherence to the health protocols. Due to the need of the medical community to achieve the scientific results of this epidemic in Iran and other parts of the world, this article was written.

Keywords: COVID-19, respiratory infection, coronavirus, novel coronavirus, epidemiology, SARS-CoV-II.

Graphical Abstract
Khachfe HH, Chahrour M, Sammouri J, Salhab H, Makki BE, Fares M. An epidemiological study on COVID-19: A rapidly spreading disease. Cureus 2020; 12(3): e7313.
[] [PMID: 32313754]
Karimi A, Rafiei Tabatabaei S, et al. An algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children: Iranian expert’s consensus statement. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis 2020; 8(2): e102400.
de Groot RJ, Baker S, Baric R, et al. Family coronaviridae.Virus taxonomy: Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses 2012; 806-20.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 507-13.
[] [PMID: 32007143]
Guan W-j, Ni Z-y, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(18): 1708-20.
Epidemiology of COVID-19 reports. National Committee for COVID 19 Epidemiology Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Iran, 2020. Available from:
National Committee on COVID-19 Epidemiology. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran. Daily situation report on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Iran; March 14, 2020. Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020; 8(1): e24.
[PMID: 32259119]
Mohamed AA, Mohamed N, Mohamoud S, et al. SARS-CoV-2: the path of prevention and control. Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021; 21(3): 358-62.
National Committee on COVID-19 Epidemiology. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran. Daily situation report on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Iran; March 15, 2020. Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020; 8(1): e25.
[PMID: 32259120]
Abd-Elsalam S, Ahmed OA, Mansour NO, et al. Remdesivir efficacy in COVID-19 treatment: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022; 106(3): 886-90.
[] [PMID: 34649223]
Larson HJ. Blocking information on COVID-19 can fuel the spread of misinformation. Nature 2020; 580(7803): 306-7.
[] [PMID: 32231320]
Shahriarirad R, Khodamoradi Z, Erfani A, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in the South of Iran. BMC Infect Dis 2020; 20(1): 427.
[] [PMID: 32552751]
Akbari A, Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Fadakar N. Early epidemiological analysis of COVID-19: First report from South of Iran. Arch Iran Med 2020.
Tuite AR, Bogoch II, Sherbo R, Watts A, Fisman D, Khan K. Estimation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) burden and potential for international dissemination of infection from Iran. Ann Intern Med 2020; 172(10): 699-701.
[] [PMID: 32176272]
Giesen C, Diez-Izquierdo L, Saa-Requejo CM, et al. COVID Epidemiological Surveillance and Control Study Group. Epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in a secondary hospital in Spain. Am J Infect Control 2021; 49(2): 143-50.
[] [PMID: 32663494]
Meo SA, Al-Khlaiwi T, Usmani AM, Meo AS, Klonoff DC, Hoang TD. Biological and epidemiological trends in the prevalence and mortality due to outbreaks of novel coronavirus COVID-19. J King Saud Univ Sci 2020; 32(4): 2495-9.
[] [PMID: 32292261]
Pourghasemi HR, Pouyan S, Heidari B, et al. Spatial modeling, risk mapping, change detection, and outbreak trend analysis of coronavirus (COVID-19) in Iran (days between February 19 and June 14, 2020). Int J Infect Dis 2020; 98: 90-108.
[] [PMID: 32574693]
Jefferies S, French N, Gilkison C, et al. COVID-19 in New Zealand and the impact of the national response: A descriptive epidemiological study. Lancet Public Health 2020; 5(11): e612-23.
[] [PMID: 33065023]
Galván Casas C, Català A, Carretero Hernández G, et al. Classification of the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: A rapid prospective nationwide consensus study in Spain with 375 cases. Br J Dermatol 2020; 183(1): 71-7.
[] [PMID: 32348545]
Öztoprak F, Javed A. Case fatality rate estimation of COVID-19 for European countries: Turkey’s current scenario amidst a global pandemic; comparison of outbreaks with European countries. world 2020; 21: 24.
Emami A, Javanmardi F, Akbari A, et al. Characteristics of deceased patients with COVID-19 after the first peak of the epidemic in Fars province, Iran. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020; 10(1): 1781330.
[] [PMID: 32944160]
Dey SK, Rahman MM, Siddiqi UR, Howlader A. Analyzing the epidemiological outbreak of COVID-19: A visual exploratory data analysis approach. J Med Virol 2020; 92(6): 632-8.
[] [PMID: 32124990]
Laxminarayan R, Wahl B, Dudala SR, et al. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states. Science 2020; 370(6517): 691-7.
[] [PMID: 33154136]
Ceylan Z. Estimation of COVID-19 prevalence in Italy, Spain, and France. Sci Total Environ 2020; 729: 138817.
[] [PMID: 32360907]
Bellino S, Punzo O, Rota MC, et al. COVID-19 WORKING GROUP. COVID-19 disease severity risk factors for pediatric patients in Italy. Pediatrics 2020; 146(4): e2020009399.
[] [PMID: 32665373]
Hoseinpour Dehkordi A, Alizadeh M, Derakhshan P, Babazadeh P, Jahandideh A. Understanding epidemic data and statistics: A case study of COVID-19. J Med Virol 2020; 92(7): 868-82.
[] [PMID: 32329522]
Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA 2020; 323(18): 1775-6.
[] [PMID: 32203977]
De Natale G, Ricciardi V, De Luca G, et al. The COVID-19 infection in Italy: A statistical study of an abnormally severe disease. J Clin Med 2020; 9(5): 1564.
[] [PMID: 32455807]
Nikpouraghdam M, Jalali Farahani A, Alishiri G, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in IRAN: A single center study. J Clin Virol 2020; 127: 104378.
[] [PMID: 32353762]
Najafi F, Izadi N, Hashemi-Nazari S-S, Khosravi-Shadmani F, Nikbakht R, Shakiba E. Serial interval and time-varying reproduction number estimation for COVID-19 in western Iran. New Microbes New Infect 2020; 36: 100715.
[] [PMID: 32566233]
Qiu H, Wu J, Hong L, Luo Y, Song Q, Chen D. Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: An observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(6): 689-96.
[] [PMID: 32220650]
Akbarian-Rad Z, Mojaveri MH, Bouzari Z, et al. Neonatal outcomes in pregnant women infected with COVID-19 in babol, north of Iran: A retrospective study with short-term follow-up. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2021; 2021: 9952701.
Wang R, Pan M, Zhang X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of 125 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Fuyang, Anhui, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 95: 421-8.
[] [PMID: 32289565]
Zheng J-Y, Li D-T, Chen Y, et al. Sex difference in clinical outcomes of Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary stenting according to age. Anatol J Cardiol 2021; 25(1): 17-23.
[PMID: 33382053]
Moradzadeh R. The challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, 2020. Epidemiol Infect 2020; 148: e82.
[] [PMID: 32242790]
Dil S, Dil N, Maken ZH. COVID-19 trends and forecast in the eastern mediterranean region with a particular focus on Pakistan. Cureus 2020; 12(6): e8582.
[] [PMID: 32670717]
Kazemi-Karyani A, Safari-Faramani R, Amini S, et al. World one-hundred days after COVID-19 outbreak: Incidence, case fatality rate, and trend. J Educ Health Promot 2020; 9: 199.
[] [PMID: 33062732]
Araban M, Karimy M, Mesri M, Armoon B, Koohestani H R, Azani H. Epidemiological, clinical characteristics of coronavirus-infected disease (COVID-19) among sample of Iranian community: Funding from survey in central of Iran. 2020.
Tabatabaei SMH, Talari H, Moghaddas F, Rajebi H. CT features and short-term prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia: A single-center study from kashan, Iran. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020; 2(2): e200130.
[] [PMID: 33778569]
Sadeghian S, Forouzannia SK, Bagheri J, et al. Early epidemiological and survival characteristics of COVID-19 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. SSRN 2020; 21
Salehi M, Ahmadikia K, Badali H, Khodavaisy S. Opportunistic fungal infections in the epidemic area of COVID-19: A clinical and diagnostic perspective from Iran. Mycopathologia 2020; 185(4): 607-11.
[] [PMID: 32737746]
Mamishi S, Heydari H, Aziz-Ahari A, et al. Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in children in Iran: Atypical CT manifestations and mortality risk of severe COVID-19 infection. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2021; 54(5): 839-44.
[] [PMID: 32814650]
Rahmanian V, Rabiee MH, Sharifi H. Case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran-a term of caution. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2020; 13(7): 328.
Lam HY, Lam TS, Wong CH, et al. The epidemiology of COVID-19 cases and the successful containment strategy in Hong Kong-January to May 2020. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 98: 51-8.
[] [PMID: 32579906]
Bazargan M, Amirfakhriyan M. Geographical analysis of COVID-19 epidemiology in Iran with exploratory spatial data analysis approach (ESDA). J Mil Med 2020; 22(6): 542-52.
Ahmadi A, Fadaei Y, Shirani M, Rahmani F. Modeling and forecasting trend of COVID-19 epidemic in Iran until May 13, 2020. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020; 34: 27.
[] [PMID: 32617266]
Soltani J, Sedighi I, Shalchi Z, Sami G, Moradveisi B, Nahidi S. Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An insight from west of Iran. North Clin Istanb 2020; 7(3): 284-91.
[] [PMID: 32478302]
Abd-Elsalam S, Noor RA, Badawi R, et al. Clinical study evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 treatment: A randomized controlled study. J Med Virol 2021; 93(10): 5833-8.
[] [PMID: 34076901]
Abd-Elsalam S, Soliman S, Esmail ES, et al. Do zinc supplements enhance the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine?: A randomized, multicenter trial. Biol Trace Elem Res 2021; 199(10): 3642-6.
[] [PMID: 33247380]
El-Bendary M, Abd-Elsalam S, Elbaz T, et al. Efficacy of combined Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia: a multicenter Egyptian study. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021; 1-5.
[] [PMID: 34225541]
Falahi E, Delshadian Z, Ahmadvand H, Shokri Jokar S. Head space volatile constituents and antioxidant properties of five traditional Iranian wild edible plants grown in west of Iran. AIMS Agricult Food 2019; 4(4): 1034-53.
Jalali AK, Ashrafi SM, Shokri S, Rezaee M, Ebrahimzadeh F, Falahi E. The effects of olive oil on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in male wistar rats. Herbal Med J 2017; 2(2): 80-6.
Booker S, Fard PM. Medicinal plants effective in the prevention and control of coronaviruses. J Compl Med 2021; 10(4): 296-307.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy