Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Engineering


ISSN (Print): 1872-2121
ISSN (Online): 2212-4047

Review Article

Recent Patents on 3D Printing Technology in Artificial Bone Printing Devices, Materials, and Related Applications

Author(s): Zhaolong Li and Qinghai Wang*

Volume 17, Issue 5, 2023

Published on: 27 August, 2022

Article ID: e200522205079 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1872212116666220520123545

Price: $65


Background: 3D printing is a kind of rapid prototyping technology. It is a digital model file-based technology that uses powdered metals, plastics, and other bond able materials to construct objects by stacking them layer by layer. In recent years, 3D printed artificial bones have been widely used for repairing or replacing damaged bones. Therefore, the application of 3d printing technology in the field of orthopedics has attracted more and more attention.

Objective: This paper introduces the research status of 3D printing technology in the field of orthopedics and discusses the future development direction.

Methods: Summarize various representative patents related to 3D printing bones all over the world.

Results: By summarizing a large number of patents related to 3D printing bones, the research status of printing devices, printing materials, structure optimization, and related applications of 3D printing bones are analyzed, and the related problems and development trends of 3D printing bones are discussed.

Conclusion: The combination of 3D printed bone materials and the optimization of the artificial bone unit structure will improve the mechanical properties of bone grafts and increase the success rate of transplantation. Bone repair aids and surgical guides will improve the success rate of orthopedic surgery and will be more widely used in the future. 3D printing technology is more and more widely used in the field of orthopedics, and there will be more research results in the future.

Keywords: 3D printing, orthopedics, artificial bone material, bone structure, implants, prototyping.

Graphical Abstract
Y. Feng, S. Zhu, D. Mei, J. Li, J. Zhang, S. Yang, and S. Guan, "Application of 3D printing technology in bone tissue engineering: A review", Curr. Drug Deliv., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 847-861, 2021.
[] [PMID: 33191886]
T. Wang, Y.F. Wang, and T.G. Liu, "The application and research progress of 3D printing in the medical field", Sci. Technol. Innov. Herald, vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 74-76, 2020.
J.M. Chen, Y.J. Jiang, and Y.S. Li, The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation., SPIE LASE, 2016, p. 9738.
B.Y. Meng, G.Q. Zhang, and P. Ma, "The application progress of 3D printing technology in the medical field", Digest World Latest Med Inform., vol. 19, no. 50, pp. 118-124, 2019.
J.I. Chen, C.Y. Zhang, Y. Zeng, and Y.l. Xu, "Orthopedics digital 3D printing technology and application", Progress in Laser and Optoelec-tronics, vol. 55, no. 01, pp. 126-134, 2018.
W.P. Li, "Pre-forming method of bone fixation plate based on 3D printing model", C.N. Patent 10,538,070,8A, 2016.
S. Wang, K. Li, L. Xu, and Y.Y. Yang, "A method of making a deformed knee bone model based on 3D printing technology", C.N. Patent 10,732,022,1A, 2017.
S. Swaminathan, and S. Anuradha, "Manufacture 3D printed orthopedic fracture models", W.O. Patent 156,894,A1, 2021.
Y.J. Teng, L.J. Da, Y.Y. Xia, L. Ma, H. Wang, S.F. Zhang, T.N. Xu, and H. Han, "A 3D model-based simulation system for the operation of the tibial tunnel of the posterior cruciate ligament", C.N. Patent 11,333,194,5A, 2021.
H. Zeng, S. Yuan-Liang, G. Xie, F. Lu, and R. Fu, "Three-dimensional printing of facial contour based on preoperative computer simulation and its clinical application", Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 98, no. 2, p. e12919, 2019.
[] [PMID: 30633150]
Y Pan, G.L. Lai, and P. Chen, "A method for manu-facturing 3D printed medical simulation human body model", C.N. Patent 11,048,102,8B, 2021.
F. Chen, "An orthopedic medical platform system and method based on 3D modeling and 3D printing", C.N. Patent 11,070,682,5A, 2020.
X.X. Ma, "A computer simulation combined with 3D printing spinal surgery method", C.N. Patent 10,444,166,4A, 2015.
F. Wang, and M.Y. Yuan, "A positioning guide plate for 3D printing plastic mandible", C.N. Patent 21,081,134,9U, 2020.
H. Kim, "3D printing mixing board for patients", K.R. Patent 10,220,349,3B1, 2018.
D.Z. Song, X.L. Tan, L. Liu, Y.X. Gao, and D.M. Huang, "A 3D printed retractor for micro-apical surgery and its manufacturing method", C.N. Patent 11,235,352,0B, 2021.
P.K. Edward, "Bone screw with 3D printed thread locking feature", U.S. Patent 11,039,866,B2, 2021.
L.Y. Guo, N. Jiang, S. Maharjan, X. Yi, R.R. Hai, X. Cao, J.Z. Yang, and K. Amir, "Bioprinting: Aqueous two‐phase emulsion bio-ink‐enabled 3D bioprinting of porous hydrogels", Adv. Mater., vol. 30, no. 50, 2018.
J.W. Wang, Z.Y. Liu, K.M. Wan, and K.R. Dai, "A preparation method of 3D printed lunar prosthesis", C.N. Patent 10,682,155,3A, 2017.
G.G. Shao, Z.G. Yang, P. Zhang, Y.P. Liu, and X.Y. Lin, "A method of making artificial sternum using 3D printing technology", C.N. Patent 10,924,800,9B, 2020.
Y.F. Si, X. Han, J.T. Zhang, and R.X. Lin, "A method of making ossicles using 3D printing technology", C.N. Patent 10,669,629,3A, 2017.
Q.H. Cao, H.J. Jin, G. Liang, T.J. Liu, J.Y. Lu, C.H. Yan, Y. Liu, X.Z. Li, H. Qiao, Y.F. Fang, Y. Zhang, X.X. Wang, F.X. Song, L.M. Yuan, and X.P. Liu, "Monocondylar artificial knee pros-thesis system based on 3D printing", C.N. Patent 10,996,603,0A, 2019.
Z.J. Zhang, L. Xu, H.Z. Ge, and A.Q. Wu, "An artificial bone forming device using digital 3D printing technology", C.N. Patent 11,351,022,0A, 2021.
H. Lan, X.D. Wang, and X.D. Long, "A new type of super-elastic bone material 3D printing equipment", C.N. Patent 21,297,924,9U, 2021.
X.M. Liang, "A 3D printing device for talar bone loss", C.N. Patent 21,204,600,0U, 2020.
L.X. Guo, Q.G. Zhao, S.H. Xue, J.Z. Yang, Y.J. Liu, M.T. Mao, M.H. Xue, and R.R. Wang, "Nano adamantane 3D printed bone and its production method", C.N. Patent 10,541,298,8A, 2016.
Q.F. Zeng, and M.M. Yi, "A zinc-containing artificial bone and its preparation method", C.N. Patent 11,197,381,1A, 2020.
N. Ni, "A human bone substitute material and its preparation method", C.N. Patent 10,726,121,1A, 2017.
X.M. Xue, S.B. Xu, C.Z. Zhao, S. Zhang, and F. Ni, "Ultrasound-assisted 3D printing medical porous reproducible stalkless shoulder humeral head with cage", C.N. Patent 11,328,852,7A, 2021.
D. Zhao, T. Zhu, J. Li, L. Cui, Z. Zhang, X. Zhuang, and J. Ding, "Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based composite bone-substitute materials", Bioact. Mater., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 346-360, 2020.
[] [PMID: 32954053]
Y.P. Gong, A.L. Ge, Z.H. He, F. Wang, Z.K. Bi, H.P. Chen, H.Q. Liu, and G.J. Chen, "3D printing method based on hydroxyapatite-zirconia artificial bone", C.N. Patent 10,993,926,5A, 2019.
L. Zhang, G. Yang, B.N. Johnson, and X. Jia, "Three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffold and material selection for bone repair", Acta Biomater., vol. 84, no. 84, pp. 16-33, 2019.
[] [PMID: 30481607]
Z.J. Liu, C.H. Wu, J.M Liu, and Y.J. Gao, "3D print-ed intervertebral fusion cage", C.N. Patent 20,903,274,7U, 2019.
X.H. Xu, J.C. Wang, L.W. Fan, H. Lu, and C. Yu, "The development status of 3D printing in orthopedics at home and abroad", Chin. Lab. Diagn., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 367-370, 2018.
L.E. Diment, M.S. Thompson, and J.H.M. Bergmann, "Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 3D printing: A systematic review", BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 12, p. e016891, 2017.
[] [PMID: 29273650]
H. Lan, X.D. Wang, and X.D. Long, "A 3D printed super-elastic artificial bone and its preparation method", C.N. Patent 11,164,531,7A, 2020.
H.D. Kim, Y.J. Lee, and Y.G. Lim, "Apparatus and method for manufacturing artificial solid bone", K.R. Patent 10,228,359,8B1, 2021.
O. Eiho, "Solid artificial bone manufacturing equipment and manufacturing method", J.P. Patent 68,381,62B2, 2021.
C. Yang, "3D printing heating system and 3D bone printer", C.N. Patent 20,801,942,0U, 2018.
L.H. Han, "A device for 3D printing bones", C.N. Patent 10,809,917,3A, 2018.
Z.J. Zhang, L. Xu, H.Z. Ge, and A.Q. Wu, "A bone model forming device based on digital 3D printing technology for medical use", C.N. Patent 11,302,189,9A, 2021.
Z. Y. Tan, S.Y. Qi, W.W. Qian, J.X. Hou, W.D. Li, Z.P. Chen, and L. Wu, "A 3D printer for artificial bone preparation", C.N. Patent 21,096,996,0U, 2020.
X.L. Mi, and Y.L. Lei, "3D Skeleton Jet Printer", C.N. Patent 20,895,841,1U, 2019.
G. Wang, "A 3D skeletal jet printer", C.N. Patent 21,110,567,1U, 2020.
J. Qi, Z.G. Yu, and J. Zhang, "Problems and trends of 3D printing metal-based biomaterials process and clinical application", Chin. Tissue Eng. Res., vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 2597-2604, 2021.
X.M. Xue, S.B. Xu, C.H. Zhang, and H.B. Zhao, "Preparation method of ultrasound-assisted custom 3D printing medical porous and renewa-ble sacral prosthesis", C.N. Patent 11,328,852,2A, 2021.
W. Ruben, V.D.S. Johan, and A.Y.S. Saber, "Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants", Acta Biomater., vol. 28, pp. 259-266, 2015.
S.B. Xu, J.Y. Liu, and H.L. Wang, "A custom-made biodegradable multi-layer nanocomposite 3D printed finger bone", C.N. Patent 10,933,074,4A, 2019.
S. Bose, D. Banerjee, S. Robertson, and S. Vahabzadeh, "Enhanced in vivo bone and blood vessel formation by iron oxide and silica doped 3d printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds", Ann. Biomed. Eng., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1241-1253, 2018.
[] [PMID: 29728785]
Y. Lai, Y. Li, H. Cao, J. Long, X. Wang, L. Li, C. Li, Q. Jia, B. Teng, T. Tang, J. Peng, D. Eglin, M. Alini, D.W. Grijpma, G. Richards, and L. Qin, "Osteogenic magnesium incorporated into PLGA/TCP porous scaffold by 3D printing for repairing challenging bone defect", Biomaterials, vol. 197, pp. 207-219, 2019.
[] [PMID: 30660996]
H.L. Mao, and Z.W. Gu, "Development status and trends of Bio-3D printing polymer materials", Progress Mater China, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 949-969, 2018.
W.Z. Wu, J. Zhao, P. Geng, H.C. Sun, and D.L. Zhao, "3D printing manufacturing method of tantalum-coated polyether ether ketone artificial bone scaffold", C.N. Patent 10,397,745,1A, 2014.
D.C. Li, J.B. Zheng, and L. Wang, "A 3D printed poly-ether-ether-ketone bone tissue symbiotic porous bone substitute and its method", C.N. Patent 11,068,095,8B, 2021.
W.Z. Wu, J. Zhao, Z.H. Jiang, H.B. Zhang, and D. Zhao, "3D printing manufacturing method of poly-ether-ether-ketone biomimetic artificial bone", C.N. Patent 10,370,750,7A, 2014.
B.I. Oladapo, S.A. Zahedi, S. Chong, T.O. Francis, and I.O. Malachi, "3D printing of surface characterization and finite element analysis improvement of PEEK-HAP-GO in bone implant", Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 106, no. 3-4, pp. 829-841, 2020.
W.R. Walsh, M.H. Pelletier, N. Bertollo, C. Christou, and C. Tan, "Does PEEK/HA enhance bone formation compared with PEEK in a sheep cervical fusion model?", Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., vol. 474, no. 11, pp. 2364-2372, 2016.
[] [PMID: 27549990]
A GREYF, and I. BALAKO, "Method for 3-D printing a custom bone graft", U.S. Patent 10,579,755, B2, 2020.
A. GREYF, and I. BALAKO, "Method for 3-D printing a custom bone graft", U.S. Patent 2019,251,217, A1, 2019.
V.G. Varanasi, I. Azhar, P.R. Kramer, T. Azimaie, P.B. Aswath, and T. Cebe, "In vivo live 3D printing of regenerative bone healing scaffolds for rapid fracture healing", U.S. Patent 2020,055,302, A1, 2020.
G. Thrivikraman, A. Athirasala, C. Twohig, S.K. Boda, and L.E. Bertassoni, "Biomaterials for craniofacial bone regeneration", Dent. Clin. North Am., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 835-856, 2017.
[] [PMID: 28886771]
J.Z. Yang, J.H. Yang, D.N. Yang, K. Zhang, D.C. Zhang, and X.P. Duan, "A bio-ceramic slurry for light-curing 3D printing and its preparation method, bone tissue engineering scaffold and its application", C.N. Patent 10,918,017,5B, 2021.
J.H. Kim, J.G. Seon, and H.C. Kang, "3D manufacturing method of bone graft material using 3D printing", K.R. Patent 10,206,984,7B1, 2018.
W.H. Zeng, "A 3D printed artificial bone composite material based on calcium phosphate and its application method", C.N. Patent 10,607,556,6A, 2016.
T. Kawai, Y. Shan, S. Fazeli, A.W. Behn, S.B. Goodman, and Y.P. Yang, "Customized, degradable, functionally graded scaffold for potential treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head", J. Orthop. Res., vol. 36, no. 3, 2018.
I. J. S. Correia, D. M. D. M. Diogo, S. A. P. Miguel, A. J. G. D. Mendonca, and J. M. C. F. Boga, "Bioactive structures produced by 3d printing for application in bone injury treatment", P.T. Patent 11,051,1A, 2019.
V.S. Komlev, S.N. Sergeevna, F.A. Yurievich, T.A. Yurievna, B.S. Mironovich, S.I. Konstantinovna, T.Y. Borisovna, K. P. Anatolyevich, K.V. Aleksandrovna, K. E. Alekseevna, and K.A. Dmitrievich, "Hydrogel for obtaining composite materials with antibacterial activity for replacing bone-cartilage defects by 3D printing method", R.U. Patent 126,010A, 2016.
H.B. Tu, J.H. Zhao, P. Liu, M.Y. Liu, Y.Y. Liu, X. Yin, and W.L. Fan, "Method for preparing implantable bone grafts by disintegrating 3D printing of animal bones", C.N. Patent 10,634,421,4A, 2017.
Z.H. Zou, J.S. Wu, J. Chen, W.S. Hong, S.M. Lin, M.Q. Yang, Z.L. Huang, Z.Y. Zou, and R.Y. Wang, "A bio-based bone engineering composite and 3D printing tape and its products", C.N. Patent 10,716,352,7B, 2019.
C.D. Feng, X. Xia, X. Li, and C.G. Wang, "Microscopic pore structure and mechanical properties of 3D printed porous titanium scaffolds", Med. Biomech., vol. 32, no. 03, pp. 256-260, 2017.
S. Arabnejad, R. Burnett Johnston, J.A. Pura, B. Singh, M. Tanzer, and D. Pasini, "High-strength porous biomaterials for bone replacement: A strategy to assess the interplay between cell morphology, mechanical properties, bone ingrowth and manufacturing constraints", Acta Biomater., vol. 30, pp. 345-356, 2016.
[] [PMID: 26523335]
S. Limmahakhun, A. Oloyede, K. Sitthiseripratip, Y. Xiao, C. Yan, L.S. Oloyede, K.S.Y. Xiao, and C. Yan, "Stiffness and strength tailoring of cobalt chromium graded cellular structures for stress-shielding reduction", Mater. Des., vol. 114, pp. 633-641, 2017.
X.L. Jiao, Research on 3D printing process and performance of titanium-based gradient microporous artificial bone., Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, 2021.
M.A. Wettergreen, B.S. Bucklen, B. Starly, E. Yuksel, W. Sun, and M.A.K. Liebschner, "Creation of a unit block library of architectures for use in assembled scaffold engineering", Comput. Aided Des., vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1141-1149, 2005.
C.C. Zhou, L. Liu, M.X. Li, W.C. Wang, W.T. S.P. Zhu, J. Li, Y.J. Fan, K.F. Wang, and X.D. Zhang, "A 3D printing bio-ink capable of constructing a multi-level biomimetic pore structure and its preparation method and printing method", C.N. Patent 11,339,833,0A, 2021.
X. Zhou, 3D printing and performance study of meteorite bone tissue engineering scaffold., Qilu University of Technology: China, 2021.
Z. Jian, S. Zhe, Y. Na, W. Chen, H.L. Song, F. Wei, Z.Y. Jun, and Z. Kun, "The clinical application of 3D printing technology in complex intra-articular fractures", Shaanxi Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 322-329, 2019.
L.L. AO, J. Lu, and M.H. Wu, "3D printing method and device of three-dimensional model of skeleton", C.N. Patent 11,022,339,1A, 2019.
Z. Shen, G. Xiong, Y. Xie, H. Pan, S. Chen, H.J. Zhu, Z.X. Pan, Y.C. Li, C. Guo, X.Q. Shang, X.S. Dong, and F.Y. Wang, "Medical model based on 3D printing and its production method", C.N. Patent 10,934,593,2B, 2021.
L. Hong, P.Y. Hu, X.Y. Chen, Y.M. Chen, X.H. Chen, L.L. Zhang, and M.T. Zhang, "A manufacturing method of 3D printing pelvis", C.N. Patent 11,039,359,0A, 2019.
E.K. Breathwaite, J.R. Weaver, A.C. Murchison, M.L. Treadwell, J.J. Odanga, and J.B. Lee, "Scaffold-free bioprinted osteogenic and chondrogenic systems to model osteochondral physiology", Biomed. Mater., vol. 14, no. 6, p. 065010, 2019.
[] [PMID: 31491773]
A.S. Rose, J.S. Kimbell, C.E. Webster, O.L.A. Harrysson, E.J. Formeister, and C.A. Buchman, "Multi-material 3D models for temporal bone surgical simulation", Annals Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 528-536, 2015.
R.V. Uddanwadikar, and P.K. Jain, "3D printed artificial temporal bone and process of making the same", W.O. Patent 2018,122,865, A1, 2018.
C.H. Zhao, S.B. Xu, X.M. Xue, S. Zhang, and H.X. Sun, "A method for ultrasonic-assisted 3D printing to form a biodegradable internal fixation bone plate", C.N. Patent 11,328,838,8A, 2021.
W.G. Chen, "A 3D printing system for orthopedic fixed splints and the orthopedic fixed splints produced", C.N. Patent 20,514,482,5U, 2016.
Z.Y. Xu, and Y.D. Lu, "A 3D printed reduction brace for distal radius fractures", C.N. Patent 21,496,646,3U, 2021.
Z.Y. Xu, and Y.D. Lu, "A 3D printed phalanx fracture reduction brace", C.N. Patent 21,496,646,4U, 2021.
Z.Y. Xu, and Y.D. Lu, "A 3D printed tibial fracture reduction brace", C.N. Patent 21,490,790,8U, 2021.
M. Li, Y.Y. Zhuo, B. He, Z.T. Liang, G.H. Xu, and J. Xie, "Rigid-flexible exoskeleton hand function rehabilitation device made of flexible material 3D printing", C.N. Patent 10,948,123,6B, 2020.
S. Ghosh, and P. Mehra, "3D printed constructs for correcting bone defects and stem cell delivery", E.P. Patent 36,149,72A1, 2020.
S. Ghosh, and P. Mehra, "3D printed constructs for correcting bone defects and stem cell delivery", W.O. Patent 198,138, A1, 2018.
X.H. Chen, H.B. Lin, H.H. Cai, and F. Zheng, "A porous lightweight femoral neck hollow screw based on 3D printing", C.N. Patent 21,113,134,1U, 2020.
H.Z. Zhong, S.X. Wang, and H.X. Mo, "A 3D printing cage for anterior lumbar interbody fusion", C.N. Patent 21,522,886,9U, 2021.
H.Z. Zhong, S.X. Wang, and H.X. Mo, "A 3D printed fusion cage for lumbar fusion through lateral approach", C.N. Patent 21,522,886,8U, 2021.
H.Z. Zhong, S.X. Wang, and H.X. Mo, "A 3D printed cage for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion", C.N. Patent 21,522,887,0U, 2021.
G.X. Liu, Q.M. Wu, R. Liu, Z.H. Liu, and X.J. Liu, "A 3D printing-based wrist fixed splint", C.N. Patent 20,858,257,5U, 2019.
X.L. Sheng, S. Liu, J. Wang, L. Zhao, Y. Zhu, W. Zhang, Q. Gu, F. Yuan, S.J. Tian, and J.F. Ge, 3D printing guide plate assisted by a new type of femoral neck internal fixation system for the treatment of young and middle-aged femoral neck fractures., Res. Tissue Eng.: China, 2022, pp. 1-7.
L. Zheng, Z.Y. Wu, X.M. Lu, Y.S. Shi, W.J. Wu, J. Zhang, and J.G. Zhang, "A new type of 3D printed jaw surgical guide for intraoral anastomosis", C.N. Patent 21,281,642,0U, 2021.
X. Zhang, B. Ren, and F.M. Wang, "A method for preparing personalized 3D printing high tibial osteotomy guide plate", C.N. Patent 11,039,357,2A, 2019.
W. Chen, "A DDH osteotomy guide plate based on 3D printing", C.N. Patent 20,612,040,3U, 2017.
Y. Li, and P. Wu, "A method for making bone surgical guides based on 3D printing", C.N. Patent 10,510,585,3A, 2015.
T.B. Gu, P. Wang, and Z.F. Zhang, "3D printed percutaneous pedicle guide plate and its preparation method and use method", C.N. Patent 10,428,781,5A, 2015.
D.Y. Kim, "Method for producing bone fixing device, bone fixing device produced through method, 3d printer filament used in producing bone fixing device, and method for producing 3d printer filament", K.R. Patent 2017,003,844,4A, 2017.
Y. Wang, and M.J. Zhou, "3D printed osteotomy guide plate for knee varus surgery", C.N. Patent 20,874,106,4U, 2019.
T. Zhang, S. Liu, Y. Gao, M. Li, and Z.F. Li, "The application of 3D printed surgical guides in the operation of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage", Chin. J. Clin. Neurosur., vol. 24, no. 02, pp. 107-109, 2019.
J. Wei, L.H. Guo, W. Ren, J.W. Wu, Z. Huang, T.T. Liang, and F.Y. Li, "A 3D printed bionic bone scaffold", C.N. Patent 21,007,795,0U, 2020.
D.Z. Li, Z.Q. Huang, W.J. Yuan, and S. Wang, "A 3D printed hip replacement prosthesis", C.N. Patent 11,363,343,9A, 2021.
S.S. Kang, S.E. Kim, and K.M. Shim, "3D Preparation Method of Customized Bone Graft for 3D Printing", K.R. Patent 10,207,403,8B1, 2017.
He Fei, Z.Y. Zhong, and Duan Hao, "A 3D printed bone tissue engineering scaffold", C.N. Patent 21,404,922,8U, 2021.
H. Zhang, L.J. Huang, Y.F. Zhu, S.H. Yang, X. Liu, T.S. Cao, J.H. Liang, Y.T. Guo, L. Wang, and X.F. Li, "Clinical application of 3D printed titanium alloy sternum implants in chest wall reconstruction", Chin. J. Clin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., vol. 27, no. 03, pp. 268-273, 2020.
Y. Guo, L. Wang, Y.J. Ding, Y. Liu, D.H. Feng, and H.L. Yang, "Early effect of 3D printing titanium alloy trabecular bone metal acetabular cup combined with bone grafting in reconstruction of acetabular bone defect", J. Prac. Orthopedics, vol. 26, no. 06, pp. 491-494, 2020.
Z.H. Li, Z.J. Liu, D.Y. Zhang, and S. Yin, "A 3D printed prosthesis and its production method can be extended", C.N. Patent 10,927,634,9A, 2019.
H.G. Kang, J. J. Wuk, L. K. Mook, J. H. Bok, and J. H. Woo, "3D Customized implant for long bones of the limbs using 3D printing", K.R. Patent 10,204,045,3B1, 2019.
W.H. Zeng, "A 3D printed hip implant", C.N. Patent 10,723,314,7B, 2020.
M. Shokouhimehr, A.S. Theus, A. Kamalakar, L. Ning, C. Cao, M.L. Tomov, J.M. Kaiser, S. Goudy, N.J. Willett, H.W. Jang, C.N. LaRock, P. Hanna, A. Lechtig, M. Yousef, J.D.S. Martins, A. Nazarian, M.B. Harris, M. Mahmoudi, and V. Serpooshan, "3D bioprinted bacteriostatic hyperelastic bone scaffold for damage-specific bone regeneration", Polymers (Basel), vol. 13, no. 7, p. 1099, 2021.
[] [PMID: 33808295]
S.I. Esfahani, P. Newman, and H. Zreiqat, "Design and fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds with a mechanical strength comparable to cortical bone to repair large bone defects", Sci. Rep., vol. 19, no. 06, 2016.
K. Wei, and L. Hu, "Bone repair porous compound stent based on 3D-bio-plotter printing technology and preparation method therefor", W.O. Patent 2017,031,906, A1, 2017.
R. Chung, A. Valdevit, and D. Kalyon, "3D printed transmodular scaffolds for grafting applications in segmental bone defects", U.S. Patent 2018,177,597, A1, 2018.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy