Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a long-term, highly prevalent, complex heterogeneous, polygenic endocrine disorder characterized by both metabolic and reproductive disorders. It affects 6-23% of reproductive-age women globally.
Objective: This review aims to facilitate an understanding of novel PCOS management approaches and highlight the results from relevant interventional animal and human studies.
Methods: Manual search on PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases was performed for relevant articles, preclinical and clinical trials based on related keywords.
Results: According to a multitude of studies, PCOS has evolved over time, but a substantial lag remains in management approaches. New insights into the cross-talk between muscle, brain, fat, and ovaries pointed out new therapeutic targets. This review has highlighted the efficacy of a wide spectrum of novel therapeutic agents [Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors, Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, nutritional supplements (Vitamins D and K, omega-3, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and intestinal cytokine IL-22] as PCOS therapeutic options. These novel therapies combine anti-inflammatory, insulinsensitizing, and anti-obesity activities, along with the restoration of the gut microbiota and thus hold the potential to address the basic pathogenic mechanisms of PCOS.
Conclusion: Exhaustive, multicentric and multiethnic studies are vital to generating a network of normative data to better figure out the PCOS trajectory and change prognostic outcomes. Preclinical and clinical data are warranted to corroborate the new therapeutics and direct health care resources accordingly.
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