Objective: This study determined for the first time the distribution of intravenous nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and its metabolite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in normal and ischemic stroke mice, examined the therapeutic effect of NMN on ischemic brain infarction, and evaluated acute toxicity of NMN after intravenous injection of NMN.
Methods: NMN and NAD levels were determined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in biological samples from mice with or without middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) at different time points post intravenous NMN injection (300 mg/kg). Brain infarction was evaluated 24 h post-MCAO. 2 g/kg NMN was used in the acute toxicity test.
Results: Under either normal or MCAO conditions, serum NMN levels sharply increased after intravenous NMN administration and then decreased rapidly within 15 min, while serum NAD levels remained unchanged during 30 min observation. Both substances displayed tissue accumulation over time and stored faster under MCAO conditions, with kidney having the highest concentrations. Particularly, NMN accumulated earlier than NAD in the brain. Moreover, NMN reduced cerebral infarction at 24 h post-MCAO. No acute toxicity was observed for 14 days. NRK1 and SLC12A8 involved in two pathways of NMN uptake exhibited the highest expressions in kidney and colon, respectively, among 11 different tissues.
Conclusion: NMN distributes to various tissues after intravenous injection and has the ability to enter the brain to boost NAD levels, and exhibits safety and therapeutic effect on acute ischemic stroke injury. High renal distribution of NMN indicates its importance in the kidney.
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