Generic placeholder image

Current Reviews in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2772-4328
ISSN (Online): 2772-4336

Mini-Review Article

A Candidate for Health Promotion, Disease Prevention and Treatment: Common Rue (Ruta graveolens L.), an Important Medicinal Plant in Traditional Medicine

Author(s): Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian*

Volume 19, Issue 1, 2024

Published on: 27 August, 2022

Page: [2 - 11] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2772432817666220510143902

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Ruta graveolens L. belongs to Rutaceae; it is a semi-wood perennial or a small evergreen sub-shrub, which is native to Southern Europe, West Asia and Northern Africa.

Objective: The goal of this manuscript was to outline the most notable traditional and modern advantages and pharmaceutical benefits of common rue.

Methods: The manuscript covers review articles, randomized control experiments, analytical studies and observations, which have been gathered from different sources, such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed. A review of the literature was carried out using the keywords rutin, Ruta graveolens L., rue, common rune, coumarin, natural products and pharmaceutical benefits.

Results: Rue contains quinoline alkaloids, such as graveoline and graveolinine, acridone alkaloids, such as furacridone and gravacridone, furanoquinoline dictamnine, coumarins, such as gravelliferone, isorutarin, rutacultin, rutaretin, and suberenone, and the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (bergapten) and 8-methoxypsoralen (xanthotoxine). Most of its aromatic and medicinal properties are due to the presence of rutin and its essential oil. It has been used in folk medicine as a stimulant, for its antiinflammatory and analgesic properties, anti-androgenic activity, anti-hyperglycemic effects, antihyperlipidemic effects, xanthine oxidase inhibition activity, and anticancer properties.

Conclusion: According to pharmacological and phytochemical advantages, pennyroyal shows its importance as a medicinal plant in both modern medicinal science and traditional medicine.

Keywords: Rutin, common rue, rue, Ruta graveolens, traditional medicine, natural products.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Mehrnia M, Akaberi M, Amiri MS, Nadaf M, Emami SA. Ethnopharmacological studies of medicinal plants in central Zagros, Lorestan Province, Iran. J Ethnopharmacol 2021; 280: 114080.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114080] [PMID: 33798662]
[2]
Buso P, Manfredini S, Reza Ahmadi-Ashtiani H, et al. Iranian medicinal plants: From ethnomedicine to actual studies. Medicina 2020; 56(3): 97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56030097] [PMID: 32110920]
[3]
Rajaei P, Mohamadi N. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Hezar mountain allocated in south east of Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 2012; 11(4): 1153-67.
[PMID: 24250549]
[4]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Improving health benefits with considering traditional and modern health benefits of Peganum harmala. Clin Phytosci 2021; 7(1): 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40816-021-00255-7]
[5]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Soleymani A, Cheng Q. Traditional herbal medicines to overcome stress, anxiety and improve mental health in outbreaks of human coronaviruses. Phytother Res 2020; 2020(1): 1-11.
[PMID: 33350538]
[6]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Exploring Artemisia annua L., artemisinin and its derivatives from traditional Chinese wonder medicinal science. Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj-Napoca 2020; 48(4): 1719-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nbha48412002]
[7]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Chemical components and pharmacological benefits of basil (Ocimum basilicum): A review. Int J Food Prop 2020; 23(1): 1961-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1828456]
[8]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Traditional herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of cold and flu in the autumn of 2020, overlapped with COVID-19. Nat Prod Commun 2020; 15(8): 1-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1934578X20951431]
[9]
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Shen H, Cheng Q. Chinese herbal medicine for SARS and SARS-CoV-2 treatment and prevention, encouraging using herbal medicine for COVID-19 outbreak. Acta Agric Scand B Soil Plant Sci 2020; 70(5): 437-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2020.1763448]
[10]
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q. Health benefits of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi) on the basis of ancient Chinese herbalism and western modern medicine. Avicenna J Phytomed 2021; 11(2): 109-19.
[PMID: 33907670]
[11]
Petelka J, Plagg B, Säumel I, Zerbe S. Traditional medicinal plants in South Tyrol (northern Italy, southern Alps): Biodiversity and use. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2020; 16(1): 74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-00419-8] [PMID: 33243238]
[12]
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q. Fenugreek cultivation with emphasis on historical aspects and its uses in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical science. Mini Rev Med Chem 2021; 21(6): 724-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557520666201127104907] [PMID: 33245271]
[13]
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q. Schisandra chinensis, five flavor berry, a traditional Chinese medicine and a super-fruit from North Eastern China. Pharmacogn Commun 2021; 11(1): 13-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/pc.2021.1.4]
[14]
Faisal M, Ahmad N, Anis M, Alatar AA, Qahtan AA. Auxin-cytokinin synergism in vitro for producing genetically stable plants of Ruta graveolens using shoot tip meristems. Saudi J Biol Sci 2018; 25(2): 273-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.09.009] [PMID: 29472777]
[15]
Diwan R, Malpathak N. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: A step towards commercialization. N Biotechnol 2008; 25(1): 85-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2008.02.002] [PMID: 18504023]
[16]
Sovova H, Sajfrtova M, Stateva RP. A novel model for multicomponent supercritical fluid extraction and its application to Ruta graveolens. J Supercrit Fluids 2017; 120(1): 102-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2016.10.008]
[17]
Coimbra AT, Ferreira S, Duarte AP. Genus Ruta: A natural source of high value products with biological and pharmacological properties. J Ethnopharmacol 2020; 260: 113076.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113076] [PMID: 32534112]
[18]
Ouerghemmi I, Bettaieb RI, Rahali FZ, et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds from extracts of cultivated and wild-grown Tunisian Ruta chalepensis. J Food Drug Anal 2017; 25(2): 350-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.04.001] [PMID: 28911677]
[19]
Lievre K, Hehn A, Tran TLM, et al. Genetic transformation of the medicinal plant Ruta graveolens L. by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated method. Plant Sci 2005; 168(4): 883-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.11.001]
[20]
Kuzovkina I, Al’terman I, Schneider B. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens. Phytochemistry 2004; 65(8): 1095-100.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.03.003] [PMID: 15110689]
[21]
Ueng YF, Chen CC, Huang YL, et al. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H)-quinone oxidoreductase in mice. J Food Drug Anal 2015; 23(3): 516-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2015.03.005] [PMID: 28911711]
[22]
Mguis K, Albouchi A, Brahim NB. Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Ruta graveolens L. Acta Bot Gallica 2011; 158(4): 645-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12538078.2011.10516301]
[23]
Stashenko EE, Acosta R, Martínez JR. High-resolution gas-chromatographic analysis of the secondary metabolites obtained by subcritical-fluid extraction from Colombian rue (Ruta graveolens L.). J Biochem Biophys Methods 2000; 43(1-3): 379-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-022X(00)00079-8] [PMID: 10869689]
[24]
Bejaoui I, Karmous T. Tunisian Ruta graveolens essential oil: Influence of factors on its yield and composition. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants 2012; 15(2): 276-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2012.10644047]
[25]
Pino JA, Rosado A, Fuentes V. Leaf oil of Ruta graveolens L. grown in Cuba. J Essent Oil Res 1997; 9(3): 365-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1997.10554263]
[26]
Yaacob KB, Abdullah CM, Joulain D. Essential oil of Ruta graveolens L. J Essent Oil Res 1989; 1(5): 203-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1989.9697787]
[27]
Steck W, Bailey BK, Shyluk JP, Gamborg OL. Coumarins and alkaloids from cell cultures of Ruta graveolens. Phytochemistry 1971; 10(1): 191-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90269-3]
[28]
Maier W, Baumert A, Groger D. Partial purification and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: Anthranilic acid N-methyltransferase from Ruta cell suspension cultures. J Plant Physiol 1995; 145(1-2): 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(11)81837-7]
[29]
Nazish I, Kaskoos RA, Mir SR, Amin S, Ali M. Preliminary pharmacognostical standardization of Ruta graveolens L. aerial parts. Res J Med Plant 2009; 3(2): 41-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2009.41.44]
[30]
Malik AA, Ahmad J, Suryapani S, Abdin MZ, Ali M. Effect of inorganic and biological fertilizer treatments on essential oil composition of Ruta graveolens L. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 2012; 18(2): 191-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10496475.2012.662929]
[31]
Milesi S, Massot B, Gontier E, Bourgaud F, Guckert A. Ruta graveolens L.: A promising species for the production of furanocoumarins. Plant Sci 2001; 161(1): 189-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00413-7]
[32]
De Feo V, De Simone F, Senatore F. Potential allelochemicals from the essential oil of Ruta graveolens. Phytochemistry 2002; 61(5): 573-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00284-4] [PMID: 12409025]
[33]
Al-Shuneigat JM, Al-Tarawneh IN, Al-Qudah MA, Al-Sarayreh SA, Al-Saraireh YM, Alsharafa KY. The chemical composition and the antibacterial properties of Ruta graveolens L. essential oil grown in Northern Jordan. Jordan J Biol Sci 2015; 8(2): 139-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12816/0027560]
[34]
Soleimani M, Aberoomand AP, Saber-Tehrani M, Rustaiyan A. Volatile composition of Ruta graveolens L. of North of Iran. World Appl Sci J 2009; 7(1): 124-6.
[35]
Ling LZ, Zhang SD. The complete chloroplast genome of the multipurpose and traditional herb, Ruta graveolens L. Mitochondrial DNA Part B 2019; 4(2): 3661-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1678426] [PMID: 33366131]
[36]
Diwan R, Shinde A, Malpathak N. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture lines. J Bot 2012; 2012: 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/685427]
[37]
Harat ZN, Sadeghi MR, Sadeghipour HR, Kamalinejad M, Eshraghian MR. Immobilization effect of Ruta graveolens L. on human sperm: A new hope for male contraception. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 115(1): 36-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.09.004] [PMID: 18029123]
[38]
Sharifi Y, Ghasemi OV, Sadat TGT, Nematzadeh GGA, Ebrahimzadeh MA. Effect of Salicylic acid on phenols and flavonoids content and DPPH scavenging activity in cell suspension culture of Iranian sodab (Ruta graveolens). Tabari Biomed Stud Res J 2019; 1(4): 18-21.
[39]
Bobade A, Kanase E, Gharate M. GC-MS study of methanolic and ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens leaves. Int J Innov Res Sci Technol 2020; 5(3): 1110-8.
[40]
Ulubelen A, Ozturk M. Alkaloids and coumarins from Ruta species. Nat Prod Commun 2006; 1(10): 851-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1934578X0600101006]
[41]
Heskel NS, Amon RB, Storrs FJ, White CR Jr. Phytophotodermatitis due to Ruta graveolens. Contact Dermat 1983; 9(4): 278-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1983.tb04390.x] [PMID: 6617186]
[42]
Gentile MT, Russo R, Pastorino O, et al. Ruta graveolens water extract inhibits cell-cell network formation in human umbilical endothelial cells via MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Exp Cell Res 2018; 364(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.01.025] [PMID: 29366810]
[43]
Noori M, Jafari M, Azimi H, Node-Farahani M. Effects of Ruta graveolens total and flavonoids extracts on rat blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and urea comparing synthetic drugs. Nusantara Biosci 2019; 11(1): 23-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.13057/nusbiosci/n110105]
[44]
Sailani MR, Moeini H. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. Indian J Urol 2007; 23(3): 257-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-1591.33720] [PMID: 19718326]
[45]
Freire RB, Borba HR, Coelho CD. Ruta graveolens L. toxicity in Vampirolepis nana infected mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2010; 42(6): 345-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.71898] [PMID: 21189902]
[46]
Bohuslavizki KH, Hinck-Kneip C, Kneip A, Koppenhofer E, Reimers A. Reduction of MS-related scotomata by a new class potassium channel blockers from Ruta graveolens. Neuroophthalmology 1993; 13(4): 191-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01658109309038150]
[47]
Maldaner J, Steffen GPK, Missio EL, Saldanha CW, Morais RMD, Steffen RB. Rue and Brazilian peppertree essential oils inhibit the germination and initial development of the invasive plant lovegrass. Int J Environ Sci 2020; 77(2): 25-263.
[48]
Arruda RL, Rodriguez MCDM, Cortes MVDCB, Filippi MCCDF, Mascarin GM, Conceicao ECD. Plant extract of Ruta graveolens standardized in furanocoumarins: Resistance elicitorin rice plants against Magnaporthe oryzae. Int J Res Stud Biosci 2017; 5(8): 11-21.
[49]
Reyes-Vaquero L, Bueno M, Ventura-Aguilar RI, et al. Seasonal variation of chemical profile of Ruta graveolens extracts and biological activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum and Stemphylium vesicarium. Biochem Syst Ecol 2021; 95: 104223.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2021.104223]
[50]
de Freitas TG, Augusto PM, Montanari T. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice. Contraception 2005; 71(1): 74-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2004.07.014] [PMID: 15639078]
[51]
Sarembaud A. Ruta graveolens, a useful homeopathic medicine for musculoskeletal disorders. La Revue d’Homeopathie 2017; 8(2): 23-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revhom.2017.03.008]
[52]
Peralta-Ruiz Y, Grande Tovar C, Sinning-Mangonez A, et al. Colletotrichum gloesporioides inhibition using chitosan-Ruta graveolens L essential oil coatings: Studies in vitro and in situ on Carica papaya fruit. Int J Food Microbiol 2020; 326: 108649.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108649] [PMID: 32402917]
[53]
Gutiérrez-Pajares JL, Zúñiga L, Pino J. Ruta graveolens aqueous extract retards mouse preimplantation embryo development. Reprod Toxicol 2003; 17(6): 667-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2003.07.002] [PMID: 14613818]
[54]
Gentile MT, Ciniglia C, Reccia MG, et al. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation. PLoS One 2015; 10(3): e0118864.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118864] [PMID: 25785932]
[55]
Faria JMS, Sena I, Moiteiro C, Bennett RN, Mota M, Cristina FA. Nematotoxic and phytotoxic activity of Satureja montana and Ruta graveolens essential oils on Pinus pinaster shoot cultures and P. pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vitro. co-cultures. Ind Crops Prod 2015; 77: 59-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.08.045]
[56]
Haddouchi F, Chaouche TM, Zaouali Y, Ksouri R, Attou A, Benmansour A. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria. Food Chem 2013; 141(1): 253-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.007] [PMID: 23768355]
[57]
Asgharian S, Hojjati MR, Ahrari M, Bijad E, Deris F, Lorigooini Z. Ruta graveolens and rutin, as its major compound: Investigating their effect on spatial memory and passive avoidance memory in rats. Pharm Biol 2020; 58(1): 447-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2020.1762669] [PMID: 32432948]
[58]
Amabye TG, Shalkh TM. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens L. – A medicinal plant grown around Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Nat Prod Chem Res 2015; 3(6): 1-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6836.1000195]
[59]
Mahmoud AM, Ahmed RR, Soliman HA, Salah M. Ruta graveolens and its active constituent rutin protect against diethylnitrosamine-induced nephrotoxicity through modulation of oxidative stress. J Appl Pharm Sci 2015; 5(10): 016-21.
[60]
Colucci-D’Amato L, Cimaglia G. Ruta graveolens as a potential source of neuroactive compounds to promote and restore neural functions. J Tradit Complement Med 2020; 10(3): 309-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.05.002] [PMID: 32670826]
[61]
Sivakamavalli J, Deepa O, Vaseeharan B. Discrete nanoparticles of ruta graveolens induces the bacterial and fungal biofilm inhibition. Cell Commun Adhes 2014; 21(4): 229-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15419061.2014.926476] [PMID: 25056565]
[62]
Hashemi KSM. Antifungal and antibacterial effects of Ruta graveolens extracts. Int J Mol Clin Microbiol 2015; 5(1): 475-80.
[63]
Narayanappa M, Sinivasa MKM. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of different extracts of Ruta graveolens L. – medicinal plants. Int J Adv Res 2015; 3(4): 1224-9.
[64]
Fadlalla K, Watson A, Yehualaeshet T, Turner T, Samuel T. Ruta graveolens extract induces DNA damage pathways and blocks Akt activation to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and survival. Anticancer Res 2011; 31(1): 233-41.
[PMID: 21273604]
[65]
Arora S, Tandon S. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: A hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells. Homeopathy 2015; 104(1): 36-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.homp.2014.10.001] [PMID: 25576270]
[66]
Ghosh S, Sikdar S, Mukherjee A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evaluation of chemopreventive potentials of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens against A375 skin melanoma cells in vitro and induced skin cancer in mice in vivo. J Integr Med 2015; 13(1): 34-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60156-X] [PMID: 25609370]
[67]
Karp JC, Sanchez C, Guilbert P, Mina W, Demonceaux A, Curé H. Treatment with Ruta graveolens 5CH and Rhus toxicodendron 9CH may reduce joint pain and stiffness linked to aromatase inhibitors in women with early breast cancer: Results of a pilot observational study. Homeopathy 2016; 105(4): 299-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.homp.2016.05.004] [PMID: 27914569]
[68]
Schelz Z, Ocsovszki I, Bózsity N, Hohmann J, Zupkó I. Antiproliferative effects of various furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens on human breast cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res 2016; 36(6): 2751-8.
[PMID: 27272785]
[69]
Halvaei I, Roodsari HR, Harat ZN. Acute effects of Ruta graveolens L. on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in rats. J Reprod Infertil 2012; 13(1): 33-8.
[PMID: 23926522]
[70]
Salib JY, El-Toumy SA, Hassan EM, Shafik NH, Abdel-Latif SM, Brouard I. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity. Nat Prod Res 2014; 28(17): 1335-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.903395] [PMID: 24697339]
[71]
Bazrafkan M, Sobhani A. Study of spermatogenesis in wistar adult rats administrated to long term of Ruta graveolens. Jentashapir J Health Res 2014; 5(4): e21870.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/jjhr-21870]
[72]
Raghav SK, Gupta B, Agrawal C, Goswami K, Das HR. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 104(1-2): 234-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.008] [PMID: 16207519]
[73]
Ratheesh M, Shyni GL, Sindhu G, Helen A. Inhibitory effect of Ruta graveolens L. on oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2011; 63(3): 285-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2010.01.007] [PMID: 20163942]
[74]
Mirghazanfari SM, Abbassian A, Kamalinejad M, Karimian SM, Massoud A. The effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. leaves on formalin-induced inflammation in rats. Tradit Integr Med 2016; 1(4): 136-41.
[75]
Ratheesh M, Helen A. Oral administration of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Pharm Biol 2013; 51(12): 1552-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.802353] [PMID: 24033089]
[76]
Ivanova A, Mikhova B, Najdenski H, Tsvetkova I, Kostova I. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ruta graveolens. Fitoterapia 2005; 76(3-4): 344-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.02.008] [PMID: 15890462]
[77]
Reddy DN, Al-Rajab AJ. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ruta graveolens L. volatile oils. Cogent Chem 2016; 2(1): 1220055.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23312009.2016.1220055]
[78]
Attia EZ, El-Baky RMA, Desoukey SY, Mohamed MAEH, Bishr MM, Kamel MS. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Ruta graveolens plants treated with salicylic acid under drought stress conditions. Futr J Pharm Sci 2018; 4(2): 254-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fjps.2018.09.001]
[79]
Law S, Sanyal S, Chatterjee R, Law A, Chattopadhyay S. Therapeutic management of peritoneal ascitic sarcomatosis by Ruta graveolens: A study in experimental mice. Pathol Res Pract 2018; 214(9): 1282-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2018.07.006] [PMID: 30025594]
[80]
Mohammadi MS, Shahidi Motlagh S, Bagherzadeh H, Azad FS, Tafazoli H. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract,s potency. Res J Pharmacog 2014; 1: 45-50.
[81]
Eldalawy R. Quantitative estimation of rutin in rue (Ruta graveolens L.) cultivated in Iraq with the evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017; 10(2): 353-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i2.15726]
[82]
Tarique M, Siddiqui HH, Khushtar M, Rahman MA. Protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens Linn. leaves on indomethacin and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2016; 7(1): 38-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2015.09.002] [PMID: 27297508]
[83]
Oliva A, Meepagala KM, Wedge DE, et al. Natural fungicides from Ruta graveolens L. leaves, including a new quinolone alkaloid. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(4): 890-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0259361] [PMID: 12568545]
[84]
Aivazi A-A, Vijayan VA. Efficacy of Ruta graveolens extract and its synergistic effect with cypermenthrin against Anopheles stephensi Liston larvae. Toxicol Environ Chem 2010; 92(5): 893-901.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02772240903092306]
[85]
Silva FGED, Mendes FRDS, Assuncao JCD, et al. Seasonal variation, larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Ruta graveolens L. J Essent Oil Res 2014; 26(3): 204-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2014.882276]
[86]
Bouabida H, Dris D. Effect of rue (Ruta graveolens) essential oil on mortality, development, biochemical and biomarkers of Culiseta longiareolata. S Afr J Bot 2020; 133: 139-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.07.005]
[87]
Sahib HB, Ouda MH, Abaas I, Abdul Jalil AI, Khadum EA, Khadum MK. The wound healing activity of (Rue) Ruta graveolens L. methanolic extracts in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014; 29(2): 263-6.
[88]
Jianu C, Golet I, Stoin D, et al. Chemical profile of Ruta graveolens, evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of its essential oil, and molecular docking simulations. Appl Sci 2021; 11(24): 11753.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app112411753]
[89]
Al-Shuneigat JM, Al-Tarawneh IN, Al-Qudah MA, Al-Sarayreh SA, Al-Saraireh YM, Alsharaf KY. The chemical composition and the antibacterial properties of Ruta graveolens L. essential oil grown in Northern Jordan. Jordan J Biol Sci 2015; 8(2): 139-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12816/0027560]
[90]
Orlanda JFF, Nascimento AR. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) volatile oils from Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil. S Afr J Bot 2015; 99: 103-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.03.198]
[91]
Reddy DN, Al-Rajab AJ, Mehellou Y. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ruta graveolens L. volatile oils. Cogent Chem 2016; 2(1): 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23312009.2016.1220055]
[92]
Salman HA, Venkatesh S, Senthilkumar R, Gnanesh KBS, Ali AM. Determination of antibacterial activity and metabolite profile of Ruta graveolens against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. J Lab Physicians 2018; 10(3): 320-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JLP.JLP_160_17] [PMID: 30078970]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy