Generic placeholder image

Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Review Article

Role of Dietary Supplements in Thyroid Diseases

Author(s): Vinesh Dahiya*, Neeru Vasudeva, Sunil Sharma and Ashok Kumar

Volume 22, Issue 10, 2022

Published on: 24 June, 2022

Page: [985 - 996] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1871530322666220419125131

Price: $65


Background: Thyroid hormones play a vital role in regulating our body’s metabolism. Two important thyroid hormones released from the thyroid gland are tri-iodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine (T4). Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid regulating hormone control the T3 and T4 levels in our body. Increased TSH levels indicate hypothyroidism and decreased TSH levels indicate hyperthyroidism. Iodine is a crucial nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones and is mostly obtained from our diet. Other essential nutrients for the thyroid hormones formation include selenium, iron, vitamin D, vitamin B12, etc. Dietary changes in these nutrients can result in alterations in thyroid function and structure. Although normally, the hormonal diseases cannot be cured, but we can improve their signs and symptoms using suitable dietary supplements.

Objective: The aim of the study was to thoroughly analyze the various benefits and risks associated with the use of dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of various thyroid disorders, like hypothyroidism, as seen in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; hyperthyroidism, as seen in Graves’ disease; sick euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism.

Methods: Literature was searched using the search terms “dietary supplements+thyroid diseases” on Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and other search engines, and data were collected from 1967 to November, 2021, including research inputs from the authors. The literature was thoroughly searched, and deep knowledge was acquired on this topic, which was then sequentially organized and summarized using suitable tables and figures.

Conclusion: After analyzing various studies on this topic, we arrived at the conclusion that although there are various claimed and observed health benefits of dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of various thyroid disorders, still several studies have shown too many risks to be associated with the use of dietary supplements, and people using these products should be aware of these risks in order to use them very judiciously for the improvement of their thyroid status.

Keywords: Dietary supplements, thyroid disorders, iodine, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin B12.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
Zimmermann, M.B. Iodine deficiency. Endocr. Rev., 2009, 30(4), 376-408.
[] [PMID: 19460960]
Vanderpump, M.P.J. The epidemiology of thyroid diseases. Werner and Ingbar’s, The thyroid: A fundamental and Clinical Text, 9th ed; Braverman, L.E.; Utiger, R.D., Eds.; JB Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 398-496.
Vanderpump, M.P.J. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Br. Med. Bull., 2011, 99, 39-51.
[] [PMID: 21893493]
American thyroid association. Available from:
Mezemmo, T.R.; Nadal, J. Effect of nutrients and dietary substances on thyroid function and hypothyroidism. Demetra: Food. Nutr. Health, 2016, 11, 427-443.
Chung, H.R. Iodine and thyroid function. Ann. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab., 2014, 19(1), 8-12.
[] [PMID: 24926457]
Harris, C. Thyroid disease and diet - nutrition plays a part in maintaining thyroid health. Todays Diet., 2012, 14, 40.
Bonofiglio, D.; Catalano, S. Effects of iodine intake and dietary supplements in thyroidology: Update and prospects. Nutrients, 2020, 12(5), 1491.
[] [PMID: 32443880]
Zimmermann, M.B. The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol., 2011, 22(6), 645-652.
[] [PMID: 21802524]
Here’s what happens to your body when your thyroid is imbalanced. Grass roots healthcare. Available from:
General thyroid information/Press room, American thyroid association. Available from:
Paul, R.; Pal, J. Diet in thyroid disorders: myths and facts. J. Assoc. Physic., 2021, 69.
Hernando, V.U.; Anilza, B.P.; Hernan, S.T.C. Iodine deficiency disorders. Thyroid Disord. Ther., 2015, 4, 172.
Vought, R.L.; London, W.T. Iodine intake, excretion and thyroidal accumulation in healthy subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1967, 27(7), 913-919.
[] [PMID: 4165697]
Bashar, M.A.; Begam, N. Role of dietary factors in thyroid disorders: current evidences and way forwards. Thyroid Res. Pract., 2020, 17, 104-109.
Vadekeetil, A. Diet and thyroid disease. 2019. Available from:
ODS. Dietary supplements: background information. 2011. Available from: Health Professional/
Benvenga, S.; Ferrari, S.M.; Elia, G.; Ragusa, F.; Patrizio, A.; Paparo, S.R.; Camastra, S.; Bonofiglio, D.; Antonelli, A.; Fallahi, P. Dietary supplements in thyroidology: a review of in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Nutrients, 2020, 12(5), 1337-1349.
[] [PMID: 32397091]
Ronis, M.J.J.; Pedersen, K.B.; Watt, J. Adverse effects of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2018, 58, 583-601.
Dean, S. Medical nutrition therapy for thyroid and related disorders. Krause’s Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy, 13th ed; Mahan, K.L.; Escott-Stump, S., Eds.; Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, 2008, pp. 711- 724.
Shomon, M. Guide to dietary supplements and thyroid disease. Available from:
Institute of Medicine. Academy of Sciences.. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
Eastman, C.J. Iodine-deficiency disorders; Endotext: South Dartmouth, MA, 2000.
Zimmermann, M.B. Iodine and iodine deficiency disorders. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 10th ed.; Erdman, JW; Macdonald, IA; Zeisel, SH, Eds.; Wiley- Blackwell: Singapore, 2012, pp. 554-567.
Woeber, K.A. Iodine and thyroid disease. Med. Clin. North Am., 1991, 75(1), 169-178.
[] [PMID: 1987441]
Zimmermann, M.B.; Boelaert, K. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol., 2015, 3(4), 286-295.
[] [PMID: 25591468]
Laurberg, P.; Cerqueira, C.; Ovesen, L.; Rasmussen, L.B.; Perrild, H.; Andersen, S.; Pedersen, I.B.; Carlé, A. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2010, 24(1), 13-27.
[] [PMID: 20172467]
Rosenfeld, L. Discovery and early uses of iodine. J. Chem. Educ., 2000, 77, 984-987.
Luo, Y.; Kawashima, A.; Ishido, Y.; Yoshihara, A.; Oda, K.; Hiroi, N.; Ito, T.; Ishii, N.; Suzuki, K. Iodine excess as an environmental risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2014, 15(7), 12895-12912.
[] [PMID: 25050783]
Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Pirnat, E. Ten-year follow-up of thyroid epidemiology in Slovenia after increase in salt iodization. Croat. Med. J., 2011, 52(5), 615-621.
[] [PMID: 21990079]
Camargo, R.Y.; Tomimori, E.K.; Neves, S.C.; G S Rubio, I.; Galrão, A.L.; Knobel, M.; Medeiros-Neto, G. Thyroid and the environment: exposure to excessive nutritional iodine increases the prevalence of thyroid disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2008, 159(3), 293-299.
[] [PMID: 18586897]
Teng, X.; Shan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Lai, Y.; Yu, J.; Shan, L.; Bai, X.; Li, Y.; Li, N.; Li, Z.; Wang, S.; Xing, Q.; Xue, H.; Zhu, L.; Hou, X.; Fan, C.; Teng, W. More than adequate iodine intake may increase subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis: A cross-sectional study based on two Chinese communities with different iodine intake levels. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2011, 164(6), 943-950.
[] [PMID: 21444648]
Teng, W.; Shan, Z.; Teng, X.; Guan, H.; Li, Y.; Teng, D.; Jin, Y.; Yu, X.; Fan, C.; Chong, W.; Yang, F.; Dai, H.; Yu, Y.; Li, J.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, D.; Shi, X.; Hu, F.; Mao, J.; Gu, X.; Yang, R.; Tong, Y.; Wang, W.; Gao, T.; Li, C. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. N. Engl. J. Med., 2006, 354(26), 2783-2793.
[] [PMID: 16807415]
Miranda, D.M.; Massom, J.N.; Catarino, R.M.; Santos, R.T.; Toyoda, S.S.; Marone, M.M.; Tomimori, E.K.; Monte, O. Impact of nutritional iodine optimization on rates of thyroid hypoechogenicity and autoimmune thyroiditis: A cross-sectional, comparative study. Thyroid, 2015, 25(1), 118-124.
[] [PMID: 25314342]
Vecchiatti, S.M.; Guzzo, M.L. Caldini, E.G.; Bisi, H.; Longatto-Filho, A.; Lin, C.J. Iodine increases and predicts incidence of thyroiditis in NOD mice: Histopathological and ultrastructural study. Exp. Ther. Med., 2013, 5(2), 603-607.
[] [PMID: 23408765]
Teng, X.; Shan, Z.; Teng, W.; Fan, C.; Wang, H.; Guo, R. Experimental study on the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function, structure, and autoimmunity in autoimmune-prone NOD.H-2h4 mice. Clin. Exp. Med., 2009, 9(1), 51-59.
[] [PMID: 18953634]
Bagchi, N.; Brown, T.R.; Sundick, R.S. Thyroid cell injury is an initial event in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis by iodine in obese strain chickens. Endocrinology, 1995, 136(11), 5054-5060.
[] [PMID: 7588241]
Kolypetri, P.; King, J.; Larijani, M.; Carayanniotis, G. Genes and environment as predisposing factors in autoimmunity: acceleration of spontaneous thyroiditis by dietary iodide in NOD.H2(h4) mice. Int. Rev. Immunol., 2015, 34(6), 542-556.
[] [PMID: 26287317]
Duntas, L.H. The role of iodine and selenium in autoimmune thyroiditis. Horm. Metab. Res., 2015, 47(10), 721-726.
[] [PMID: 26361258]
Mackawy, A.M.H.; Al-Ayed, B.M.; Al-Rashidi, B.M. Vitamin d deficiency and its association with thyroid disease. Int. J. Health Sci. (Qassim), 2013, 7(3), 267-275.
[] [PMID: 24533019]
Bikle, D. Nonclassic actions of vitamin D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2009, 94(1), 26-34.
[] [PMID: 18854395]
Prietl, B.; Treiber, G.; Pieber, T.R.; Amrein, K. Vitamin D and immune function. Nutrients, 2013, 5(7), 2502-2521.
[] [PMID: 23857223]
Klecha, A.J.; Barreiro Arcos, M.L.; Frick, L.; Genaro, A.M.; Cremaschi, G. Immune-endocrine interactions in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Neuroimmunomodulation, 2008, 15(1), 68-75.
[] [PMID: 18667802]
Barchetta, I.; Baroni, M.G.; Leonetti, F.; De Bernardinis, M.; Bertoccini, L.; Fontana, M.; Mazzei, E.; Fraioli, A.; Cavallo, M.G. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults. Clin. Exp. Med., 2015, 15(3), 389-396.
[] [PMID: 24925636]
Muscogiuri, G.; Tirabassi, G.; Bizzaro, G.; Orio, F.; Paschou, S.A.; Vryonidou, A.; Balercia, G.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Colao, A. Vitamin D and thyroid disease: To D or not to D? Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2015, 69(3), 291-296.
[] [PMID: 25514898]
Ventura, M.; Melo, M.; Carrilho, F. Selenium and thyroid disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. Int. J. Endocrinol., 2017, 2017, 1297658.
[] [PMID: 28255299]
Schomburg, L. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: Interactions in health and disease. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol., 2011, 8(3), 160-171.
[] [PMID: 22009156]
Hu, S.; Rayman, M.P. Multiple nutritional factors and the risk of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Thyroid, 2017, 27(5), 597-610.
[] [PMID: 28290237]
Brown, K.M.; Arthur, J.R. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: A review. Public Health Nutr., 2001, 4(2B), 593-599.
[] [PMID: 11683552]
Beckett, G.J.; Arthur, J.R. Selenium and endocrine systems. J. Endocrinol., 2005, 184(3), 455-465.
[] [PMID: 15749805]
Duntas, L.H. The role of selenium in thyroid autoimmunity and cancer. Thyroid, 2006, 16(5), 455-460.
[] [PMID: 16756467]
Maia, A.L.; Goemann, I.M.; Meyer, E.L.; Wajner, S.M. Deiodinases: The balance of thyroid hormone: type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase in human physiology and disease. J. Endocrinol., 2011, 209(3), 283-297.
[] [PMID: 21415143]
Iddah, M.A.; Macharia, B.N. Autoimmune thyroid disorders. ISRN Endocrinol., 2013, 2013, 509764.
[] [PMID: 23878745]
Mazokopakis, E.E.; Papadakis, J.A.; Papadomanolaki, M.G.; Batistakis, A.G.; Giannakopoulos, T.G.; Protopapadakis, E.E.; Ganotakis, E.S. Effects of 12 months treatment with L-selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO levels in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Thyroid, 2007, 17(7), 609-612.
[] [PMID: 17696828]
Rayman, M.P. Selenium and human health. Lancet, 2012, 379(9822), 1256-1268.
[] [PMID: 22381456]
Mazokopakis, E.E.; Chatzipavlidou, V. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and the role of selenium. Current concepts. Hell. J. Nucl. Med., 2007, 10(1), 6-8.
Gärtner, R.; Gasnier, B.C. Selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis. Biofactors, 2003, 19(3-4), 165-170.
[] [PMID: 14757967]
Franco, J.S.; Amaya- Amaya, J; Anaya, JM Thyroid disease and autoimmune diseases, Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside; El Rosario University Press, 2013. Available from:
Ahi, S.; Dehdar, M.R.; Hatami, N. Vitamin D deficiency in non-autoimmune hypothyroidism: A case-control study. BMC Endocr. Disord., 2020, 20(1), 41.
[] [PMID: 32192469]
Antonelli, A.; Ferrari, S.M.; Corrado, A.; Di Domenicantonio, A.; Fallahi, P. Autoimmune thyroid disorders. Autoimmun. Rev., 2015, 14(2), 174-180.
[] [PMID: 25461470]
Centanni, M.; Marignani, M.; Gargano, L.; Corleto, V.D.; Casini, A.; Delle Fave, G.; Andreoli, M.; Annibale, B. Atrophic body gastritis in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease: An underdiagnosed association. Arch. Intern. Med., 1999, 159(15), 1726-1730.
[] [PMID: 10448775]
Lahner, E.; Centanni, M.; Agnello, G.; Gargano, L.; Vannella, L.; Iannoni, C.; Delle Fave, G.; Annibale, B. Occurrence and risk factors for autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with atrophic body gastritis. Am. J. Med., 2008, 121(2), 136-141.
[] [PMID: 18261502]
Jabbar, A.; Yawar, A.; Waseem, S.; Islam, N.; Ul Haque, N.; Zuberi, L.; Khan, A.; Akhter, J. Vitamin B12 deficiency common in primary hypothyroidism. J. Pak. Med. Assoc., 2008, 58(5), 258-261.
[PMID: 18655403]
Wang, Y.P.; Lin, H.P.; Chen, H.M.; Kuo, Y.S.; Lang, M.J.; Sun, A. Hemoglobin, iron, and vitamin B12 deficiencies and high blood homocysteine levels in patients with anti-thyroid autoantibodies. J. Formos. Med. Assoc., 2014, 113(3), 155-160.
[] [PMID: 24630032]
Tozzoli, R.; Kodermaz, G.; Perosa, A.R.; Tampoia, M.; Zucano, A.; Antico, A.; Bizzaro, N. Autoantibodies to parietal cells as predictors of atrophic body gastritis: A five-year prospective study in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Autoimmun. Rev., 2010, 10(2), 80-83.
[] [PMID: 20696284]
Ness-Abramof, R.; Nabriski, D.A.; Braverman, L.E.; Shilo, L.; Weiss, E.; Reshef, T.; Shapiro, M.S.; Shenkman, L. Prevalence and evaluation of B12 deficiency in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Am. J. Med. Sci., 2006, 332(3), 119-122.
[] [PMID: 16969140]
Orzechowska-Pawilojc, A.; Sworczak, K.; Lewczuk, A.; Babinska, A. Homocysteine, folate and cobalamin levels in hypothyroid women before and after treatment. Endocr. J., 2007, 54(3), 471-476.
[] [PMID: 17464093]
Orzechowska-Pawilojc, A.; Siekierska-Hellmann, M.; Syrenicz, A.; Sworczak, K. Homocysteine, folate, and cobalamin levels in hyperthyroid women before and after treatment. Endokrynol. Pol., 2009, 60(6), 443-448.
[PMID: 20041361]
Aisen, P.; Enns, C.; Wessling-Resnick, M. Chemistry and biology of eukaryotic iron metabolism. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 2001, 33(10), 940-959.
[] [PMID: 11470229]
Lieu, P.T.; Heiskala, M.; Peterson, P.A.; Yang, Y. The roles of iron in health and disease. Mol. Aspects Med., 2001, 22(1-2), 1-87.
[] [PMID: 11207374]
McDowell, L.R. Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd ed; Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, 2003, p. 660.
Hurrell, R.F. Bioavailability of iron. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 1997, 51(Suppl. 1), S4-S8.
[PMID: 9023471]
Hess, S.Y.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Arnold, M.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F. Iron deficiency anemia reduces thyroid peroxidase activity in rats. J. Nutr., 2002, 132(7), 1951-1955.
[] [PMID: 12097675]
Kasper, D.L. Harrison’s Principle of Internal Medicine, 19th ed; Mc Graw Hill Education, 2015.
Eftekhari, M.H.; Eshraghian, M.R.; Mozaffari-Khosravi, H.; Saadat, N.; Shidfar, F. Effect of iron repletion and correction of iron deficiency on thyroid function in iron-deficient Iranian adolescent girls. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2007, 10(2), 255-260.
[] [PMID: 19070025]
Takamatsu, J.; Majima, M.; Miki, K.; Kuma, K.; Mozai, T. Serum ferritin as a marker of thyroid hormone action on peripheral tissues. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1985, 61(4), 672-676.
[] [PMID: 4031012]
Chasapis, C.T.; Loutsidou, A.C.; Spiliopoulou, C.A.; Stefanidou, M.E. Zinc and human health: An update. Arch. Toxicol., 2012, 86(4), 521-534.
[] [PMID: 22071549]
Feitosa, M.C.P.; Lima, V.B.S.; Marreiro, D.N. Participação da inflamação sobre o metabolismo do zinco na obesidade. Nutrire. Rev. Soc. Bras. Alim. Nutr., 2012, 37, 93.
Franklin, R.B.; Levy, B.A.; Zou, J.; Hanna, N.; Desouki, M.M.; Bagasra, O.; Johnson, L.A.; Costello, L.C. ZIP14 zinc transporter downregulation and zinc depletion in the development and progression of hepatocellular cancer. J. Gastrointest. Cancer, 2012, 43(2), 249-257.
[] [PMID: 21373779]
Gibson, R.S. A historical review of progress in the assessment of dietary zinc intake as an indicator of population zinc status. Adv. Nutr., 2012, 3(6), 772-782.
[] [PMID: 23153731]
Chiranjib, D.B.; Kumar, K.P.S. A potential medicinal importance of zinc in human health and chronic disease. Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci., 2010, 1, 5.
Hambidge, K.M.; Miller, L.V.; Westcott, J.E.; Sheng, X.; Krebs, N.F. Zinc bioavailability and homeostasis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010, 91(5), 1478S-1483S.
[] [PMID: 20200254]
Ganapathy, S.; Volpe, S.L. Zinc, exercise, and thyroid hormone function. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 1999, 39(4), 369-390.
[] [PMID: 10442272]
Severo, J.S.; Morais, J.B.S. de Freitas, Taynáh, E.C. The role of Zinc in thyroid hormones metabolism. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 2019, 89(1-2), 80-88.
[] [PMID: 30982439]
Baltaci, A.K.; Mogulkoc, R.; Belviranli, M. L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism affects elements and zinc in rats. Bratisl. Lek Listy, 2013, 114(3), 125-128.
[] [PMID: 23406177]
Marques, R.C.; Marreiro, D.N. Metabolic and functional aspects of zinc in down syndrome. Rev. Nutr., 2006, 19, 501.
Brandão-Neto, J.; Saturnino, A.C.R.D.; Leite, L.D.; Rocha, E.D.M.; Marcos, C.M.P.; Silva, C.A.B. Lack of acute zinc effect on thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion during oral zinc tolerance test in healthy men. Nutr. Res., 2006, 26, 493.
Nishiyama, S.; Futagoishi-Suginohara, Y.; Matsukura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Higashi, A.; Shinohara, M.; Matsuda, I. Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 1994, 13(1), 62-67.
[] [PMID: 8157857]
Fujimoto, S.; Indo, Y.; Higashi, A.; Matsuda, I.; Kashiwabara, N.; Nakashima, I. Conversion of thyroxine into tri-iodothyronine in zinc deficient rat liver. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 1986, 5(5), 799-805.
[] [PMID: 3761111]
Arthur, J.R.; Beckett, G.J. Thyroid function. Br. Med. Bull., 1999, 55(3), 658-668.
[] [PMID: 10746354]
Chen, M.D.; Lin, P.Y.; Lin, W.H. Zinc supplementation on serum levels and hepatic conversion of thyroid hormones in obese (ob/ob) mice. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 1998, 61(1), 89-96.
[] [PMID: 9498335]
Benvenga, S.; Lakshmanan, M.; Trimarchi, F. Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake. Thyroid, 2000, 10(12), 1043-1050.
[] [PMID: 11201848]
Kendler, B.S. Carnitine: An overview of its role in preventive medicine. Prev. Med., 1986, 15(4), 373-390.
[] [PMID: 3532087]
De Vivo, D.C.; Tein, I. Primary and secondary disorders of carnitine metabolism. Int. Pediatr., 1990, 5, 8.
Rebouche, C.J. Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2004, 1033, 30-41.
[] [PMID: 15591001]
Benvenga, S.; Amato, A.; Calvani, M.; Trimarchi, F. Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2004, 1033, 158-167.
[] [PMID: 15591013]
An, J.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, K.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, N.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Kim, N.H.; Choi, K.M.; Baik, S.H.; Choi, D.S.; Kim, S.G. L-carnitine supplementation for the management of fatigue in patients with hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Endocr. J., 2016, 63(10), 885-895.
[] [PMID: 27432821]
Rayman, M.P. Multiple nutritional factors and thyroid disease, with particular reference to autoimmune thyroid disease. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 2019, 78(1), 34-44.
[] [PMID: 30208979]
Sharma, R.; Bharti, S.; Kumar, K.H. Diet and thyroid - myths and facts. J. Med. Nutr. Nutraceut., 2014, 3, 60-65.
Ephedrine (ephedrine): Uses, dosage, side effects, interactions, warning. Available from:
Cooper, L. 5 Reasons you should never take thyroid supplements. Available from:
Ohnishi, N.; Yokoyama, T. Interactions between medicines and functional foods or dietary supplements. Keio J. Med., 2004, 53(3), 137-150.
[] [PMID: 15477727]
Ferreira, A.C.F.; Lisboa, P.C.; Oliveira, K.J.; Lima, L.P.; Barros, I.A.; Carvalho, D.P. Inhibition of thyroid type 1 deiodinase activity by flavonoids. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2002, 40(7), 913-917.
[] [PMID: 12065212]
Kuballa, J. Supplements and thyroid health: What to know? Available from:
Kang, G.Y.; Parks, J.R.; Fileta, B.; Chang, A.; Abdel-Rahim, M.M.; Burch, H.B.; Bernet, V.J. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine content in commercially available thyroid health supplements. Thyroid. Off. J. Am. Thyroid Assoc., 2013, 23(10), 1233-1237.
[] [PMID: 23758055]
Cliff, J.; Lundquist, P.; Rosling, H.; Sörbo, B.; Wide, L. Thyroid function in a cassava-eating population affected by epidemic spastic paraparesis. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.), 1986, 113(4), 523-528.
[] [PMID: 3788422]
Eltom, M.; Elmahdi, E.M.; Salih, M.A.; Mukhtar, E.; Omer, M.I. A new focus of endemic goitre in the Sudan. Trop. Geogr. Med., 1985, 37(1), 15-21.
[PMID: 4012847]
Elnagar, B.; Eltom, M.; Karlsson, F.A.; Ermans, A.M.; Gebre-Medhin, M.; Bourdoux, P.P. The effects of different doses of oral iodized oil on goiter size, urinary iodine, and thyroid-related hormones. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1995, 80(3), 891-897.
[] [PMID: 7883848]
Bajaj, J.K.; Salwan, P.; Salwan, S. Various possible toxicants involved in thyroid dysfunction: A review. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2016, 10(1), FE01-FE03.
[] [PMID: 26894086]
Dahiya, V.; Vasudeva, N.; Sharma, S.; Kumar, A.; Rowley, D. Lead anti-obesity compounds from nature. Endocr. Metab. Immune Disord. Drug Targets, 2020, 20(10), 1637-1653.
[] [PMID: 32364084]
John-Kalarickal, J.; Pearlman, G.; Carlson, H.E. New medications which decrease levothyroxine absorption. Thyroid, 2007, 17(8), 763-765.
[] [PMID: 17725434]
Babiker, A.; Alawi, A.; Al Atawi, M.; Al Alwan, I. The role of micronutrients in thyroid dysfunction. Sudan. J. Paediatr., 2020, 20(1), 13-19.
[] [PMID: 32528196]
Dietary supplements (Dietary supplements) FDA approval. CAPOTE law firm. Available from:
Ray, A.; Joshi, J.; Gulati, K. Regulatory aspect of dietary supplements: An Indian perspective. Efficacy, Safety and Toxicology., 2016, pp. 941-946.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy