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Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-529X
ISSN (Online): 2212-4063

Case Report

Severe Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Complicating Treatment-naive Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: A Case Report

Author(s): Mahadev Meena, Durga Shankar Meena*, Deepak Kumar and Sonu Pandit

Volume 22, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 27 April, 2022

Page: [6 - 9] Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/1871529X22666220418105506

Price: $65


Background: Haematological manifestations in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been uncommon since the advent of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs). However, primary HCV infection can cause significant haematological disease in the form of various autoimmune cytopenias.

Case Presentation: We herein discuss a 68-years-old female with chronic HCV infection for the last 15 years (not on the treatment), who presented with complaints of progressive fatigue, exertional dyspnea, and increased abdominal distention over the previous 20 days. Coombs-positive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) was diagnosed based on the haematological evaluation (raised lactate dehydrogenase, indirect bilirubinemia, raised reticulocyte count and direct Coombs positive). The patient showed significant improvement in haematological indices with oral prednisolone. However, she eventually succumbed to her illness due to underlying decompensated liver disease. HCV infection may associate with global derangement of the immune system, which is likely to cause AIHA. Diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias can be easily missed in HCV positive patients due to underlying decompensated liver disease and portal hypertension.

Conclusion: Thus, screening of HCV infection is imperative in every patient of AIHA, especially with the high worldwide prevalence of HCV.

Keywords: Hepatitis C, liver, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune, Coombs test, cirrhosis.

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