Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry of an Underutilized Plant Cordia dichotoma L.

Author(s): Mohammad Abdullah, Shazia Usmani and Poonam Kushwaha*

Volume 18, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 17 May, 2022

Page: [728 - 738] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573401318666220412113142

Price: $65


Cordia dichotoma L. (Family Boraginaceae), a well-known medicinal plant, has been traditionally used for thousands of years for the treatment of various diseases. Several studies have been undertaken to assess the pharmacological potential of different parts of the plant, namely roots, stem, flower, and leaves, for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, antifertility, antifungal, and wound healing properties. The present review aims to deliver a comprehensive summary of botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and prospects of potential pharmacological activities of the plant Cordia dichotoma. A literature survey was carried out through books on herbal medicine and different online databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Scifinder, Science Direct, and Springer. All papers based on traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological properties have been analyzed and summarized in this review. The elaborative results vindicate that extracts and phytoconstituents from Cordia dichotoma exert a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and hold significant prospects in major health conditions.

Keywords: Cordia dichotoma, pharmacological activity, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, wound healing, anticancer.

Graphical Abstract
Pathak K, Das RJ. Herbal Medicine- A rational approach in health care system. European J Herb Med 2013; 1: 86-9.
Safarpoor Dehkordi F, Tirgir F, Valizadeh Y. Effects of GuajolĀ® ointment synthesized from medicinal smoke condensate of jennet feces on burn wound healing on Wistar rat. Vet Res Forum 2017; 8(3): 215-21.
[PMID: 29085609]
Verma S, Singh SP. Current and future status of herbal medicines. Vet World 2008; 1(2): 347-50.
Singh R, Jawaid T. Cinnamomum camphora (Kapur). Pharmacogn J 2012; 4(28): 1-5.
Prajapati S, Kar M, Maurya S, Pandey R, Dhakar RC. Exploring phytochemicals and pharmacological uses of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review. J Drug Deliv Ther 2017; 7(6): 125-31.
Doshi GM, Vanmali BV. Development and evaluation of herbal formulation from Polyalthia longifolia, Tabernaemontana alternifolia, Benincasa hispida plant extracts. Pharm Lett 2016; 5: 170-83.
Oza MJ, Kulkarni YA. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the medicinal species of the genus Cordia (Boraginaceae). J Pharm Pharmacol 2017; 69(7): 755-89.
[] [PMID: 28266011]
Shashi S. Medicinal plants-perspectives and needs. Pharmacog Nat Prod 2016; 2: 2472-0992.
Mukherjee PK, Rai S, Kumar V, Mukherjee K, Hylands P, Hider R. Plants of Indian origin in drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov 2007; 2(5): 633-57.
[] [PMID: 23488955]
Thirupathi K, Kumar SS, Raju VS, Ravikumar B, Krishna DR, Mohan GK. A review of medicinal plants of the genus Cordia: Their chemistry and pharmacological uses. J Nat Rem 2008; 1: 1-10.
Dighe P, Dighe S. A review on medicinal fruit Bhokar of species C. dichotoma Forst. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 2014; 3: 41-7.
Matias EFF, Alves EF, do Nascimento Silva MK, de Alencar Carvalho VR, Coutinho HDM, da Costa JGM. The genus Cordia: Botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2015; 25(5): 542-52.
Ganjare A, Raut N. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of (Bhokar): A short C. dichotoma. Asian J Pharm Pharmacol 2019; 5(5): 858-65.
Hussain N, Kakoti BB. Review on ethnobotany and psychopharmacology of Cordia dichotoma. J Drug Deliv Ther 2013; 1: 110-3.
Singh H, Kaur S, Singh S, Bansal N. Pharmacological review on Cordia dichotoma. American J PharmTech Res 2017; 2: 2249-3387.
Hussain N, Kakoti BB, Rudrapal M, et al. Bioactive antidiabetic flavonoids from the stem bark of Cordia dichotoma Forst: Identification, docking and ADMET studies. Molbank 2021; 2021(2): M1234.
Mulani RM, Nandedkar PH, Solankar BM. Phytochemical estimations and antimicrobial activity of methanolic and acetone extracts of C. dichotoma F. Asian J Phytomed Clinical Res 2013; 4: 211-7.
Jamkhande PG, Barde SR, Patwekar SL, Tidke PS. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(12): 1009-16.
[] [PMID: 24093795]
Yadav RK, Prakash A. Aromatic medicinal plant resources in Uttar Pradesh. India. Med Aromat Plants 2014; 3(3): 160.
Kumar N, Khurana SMP. Phytochemistry and medicinal values of glueberry (Cordia dichotoma G. forst). Med Plant 2016; 8(3): 199-206.
Kumari RM, Thapa N, Gupta N, Kumar A, Nimesh S. Antibacterial and photocatalytic degradation efficacy of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Cordia dichotoma leaf extract. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016; 7(4): 045009.
El-Newary SA, Sulieman AM, Asker MS, Mahmoud MG, El-Attar SR. Evaluation hypolipidemic and antioxidant characters of C. dichotoma Fruits mucilage in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Pharma Chem 2017; 6: 20-9.
Rawat S, Saini R, Sharma A. Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activities of Cordia dichotoma. Int Res J Pharm 2013; 1: 2230-8807.
Bhattacharya P, Saha A. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2013; 2(2): 342-50.
Tian S, Liu F, Zhang X, Upur H. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds. Pak J Pharm Sci 2014; 27(5): 1123-9.
[PMID: 25176355]
Wang Y, Ohtani K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K. Flavonol glycosides and phenolics from leaves of Cordia dichotoma. Nat Med 1996; 50(5): 367.
Madhubala M, Santhi G. Phytochemical and GC-MS analysis on leaves of selected medicinal plants in Boraginaceae family Cordia dichotoma L. Res R J 2019; 9(3): 688-707.
Abdel-Aleem ER, Attia EZ, Farag FF. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities of Cordia myxa L. leaves. Clin Phytosci 2019; 5: 29.
Ragasa CY, Ebajo VD, G. Forst. Chemical constituents of Cordia dichotoma G J Applied Pharm Sci 2015; 5: 16-21.
Rahman MA, Hussain A. Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Cordia dichotoma Linn. leaves. Pharmacogn J 2015; 7(1): 58-63.
Katolkar PP, Wanjari BE, Nimbekar TP, Duragkar NJ. Antiimplantation activity of the methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma Lam. bark in rats. Int J Biomed Adv Res 2012; 3(3): 202-4.
Mahasweta R, Kumar B, Kumar N, Patel A, Kumar B. Antioxidant activity of taxifolin obtained from methanolic extracts of Cordia dichotoma Linn seeds. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5(7): 2896-901.
Kuppasta IJ, Nayak PV. Wound healing activity of Cordia dichotoma Forst Fruits. Nat Prod Rad 2006; 5(2): 99-102.
Pawar HA, Jadhav P. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and spectrophotometric estimation of total polysaccharide content of gum isolated from Cordia dichotoma Fruits. Nat Prod Chem Res 2015; 3: 165.
Nariya PB, Shukla VJ, Acharya RN, et al. Triterpenoid and fatty acid contents from the stem bark of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.). Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2018; 60(4): 594-600.
[] [PMID: 31188773]
Thirupathi K, Sathesh Kumar S, Goverdhan P, Ravikumar B, Krishna D, Krishna Mohan G. Hepatoprotective action of Cordia dichotoma against carbon tetrachloride induced heart injury in rats. Niger J Nat Prod Med 2007; 11: 37-40.
Avadhani K, Waggi M, Maisale A. Hepatoprotective activity of Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. fruits on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Adv Sci Lett 2017; 3(3): 1895-8.
Ganjare AB, Nirmal SA, Patil AN. Use of apigenin from Cordia dichotoma in the treatment of colitis. Fitoterapia 2011; 82(7): 1052-6.
[] [PMID: 21745550]
Ganjare AB, Nirmal SA, Rub RA, Patil AN, Pattan SR. Use of Cordia dichotoma bark in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Pharm Biol 2011; 49(8): 850-5.
[] [PMID: 21696332]
Kuppast I, Nayak PV, Prakash K, Kumar K. Anti-ulcer effect of Cordia dichotoma Forstf fruits against gastric ulcers in rats. Internet J Pharmacol 2008; p. 7.
Shah D, Prasad N, Limbani B. Gastoprotective and antiulcer effect of Cordia dichotoma. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 2(9): 70-2.
Hatware KV, Sharma S, Patil K, Shete M, Karri S, Gupta G. Evidence for gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves on indomethacin and stress induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 103: 317-25.
[] [PMID: 29660650]
Sharma US, Sharma UK, Sutar N, Singh A, Shukla DK. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cordia dichotoma forst f. seeds extracts. Int J Pharm Anal 2010; 2(1): 1-4.
Shahapurkar AA. Jayanthi. Drug neomycin release from Cordia dichotoma transdermal film and anti-inflammatory activity. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 2(9): 107-9.
Gupta R, Kaur J. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf. Pharmacognosy Res 2015; 7(1): 126-30.
[] [PMID: 25598647]
Mishra A, Garg GP. Antidiabetic activity of fruit pulp of Cordia dichotoma in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(9): 2314-9.
Hussain N, Kakoti BB, Rudrapal M, et al. Bioactive flavonoids from the stem bark of Cordia dichotoma forst.: Identification, docking and ADMET studies. Preprints 2021; 2021; 050171.
Sherif SM, Abeer ESE. Anti-diabetic potential of Cordia dichotoma pulp and peel (functional fiber) in type II diabetic rats. Int J Pharmacol 2019; 15: 102-9.
Hussain N, Kakoti BB, Rudrapal M, et al. Antidiabetic activity of the bark of indian cherry, Cordia dichotoma. Biosc Biotech Res Comm 2020; 13(4)
Singh R, Lawania RD, Mishra A, Gupta R. Role of Cordia dichotoma seeds and leaves extract in degenerative disorders. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 2(1): 21-4.
Dehkordi FS, Saberian S, Momtaz H. Detection and segregation of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in aborted bovine, ovine, caprine, buffaloes and camelid fetuses by application of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Wetchasan Sattawaphaet 2012; 42(1): 13.
Dehkordi FS, Momtaz H, Doosti A. Application of Real-Time PCR for detection of Aspergillus species in aborted ruminant foetuses. Bulg J Vet Med 2012; 15(1): 30-6.
Dehkordi FS. Prevalence study of Coxiella burnetii in aborted ovine and caprine fetuses by evaluation of nested and real-time PCR assays. Am J Anim Vet Sci 2011; 6(4): 180-6.
Safarpoor DF, Tavakoli-Far B, Jafariaskari S, et al. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile women: Virulence factors, O-serogroups, and phenotyping and genotyping characterization of antibiotic resistance. New Microbes New Infect 2020; 38: 100824.
[] [PMID: 33364031]
Dehkordi FS, Haghighi N, Momtaz H, Rafsanjani MS, Momeni M. Conventional vs. real-time PCR for detection of bovine herpes virus type 1 in aborted bovine, buffalo and camel foetuses. Bulg J Vet Med 2013; 16(2): 102-12.
Dehkordi FS, Yazdani F, Mozafari J, Valizadeh Y. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products. BMC Res Notes 2014; 7(1): 217.
[] [PMID: 24708594]
Dehkordi FS, Barati S, Momtaz H, Ahari SN, Dehkordi SN. Comparison of shedding, and antibiotic resistance properties of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from milk, feces, urine, and vaginal secretion of bovine, ovine, caprine, buffalo, and camel species in Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2013; 6(3): 284.
Ghorbani F, Gheisari E, Dehkordi FS. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered from some Iranian food items. Trop J Pharm Res 2016; 15(8): 1631-6.
Deore V, Namdeo AG. In vitro evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Cordia dichotoma Forst on urinary tract pathogens. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2013; 3: 110-3.
Maisale AB, Attimarad SL, Haradigatti DS, Karigar A. Anthelmintic activity of fruit pulp of Cordia dichotoma. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010; 1: 597-600.
Jamkhande PG, Barde SR. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity and in silico PASS assisted prediction of Cordia dichotoma (Forst.) root extract. Anc Sci Life 2014; 34(1): 39-43.
[] [PMID: 25737609]
Nariya PB, Bhalodia NR, Shukla VJ, Acharya RN. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts. Ayu 2011; 32(4): 585-9.
[] [PMID: 22661859]
Sulieman AM, El-Newary SA. Hypolipidemic effect of Cordia dichotoma Forst. Pulp in high-fat diet-fed rats. World J Dairy Food Sci 2014; 9: 260-71.
El-Newary SA, Ibrahim AY, Osman SM, Wink M. Evaluation of possible mechanisms of Cordia dichotoma fruits for hyperlipidemia controlling in Wistar albino rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2018; 8(6): 302-12.
Nariya PB, Bhalodia NR, Shukla VJ, Acharya R, Nariya MB. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark. Ayu 2013; 34(1): 124-8.
[] [PMID: 24049418]
Nandedkar PH, Mulani RM. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma collected from different geographical region. Int J Sci Res 2015; 4(2): 2294-300.
Rahman MA, Hussain A. Anticancer activity and apoptosis inducing effect of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma against human cancer cell line. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2015; 10(1): 27-34.
Rahman MA, Sahabjada AJ. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Cordia dichotoma leaves against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. J Tradit Complement Med 2017; 7(3): 315-21.
[] [PMID: 28725626]
Usmani S, Ahmad M, Sahabjada Ali M. Cellular oxidative stress and antiproliferative effects of Cordia dichotoma (Linn.) seeds extract and their fractions on human cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and human lung (A549) carcinoma cells. Eur J Integr Med 2018; 21: 1-10.
Ibrahim AY, El-Newary SA, Ibrahim GE. Antioxidant, cytotoxicity and anti-tumor activity of Cordia dichotoma fruits accompanied with its volatile and sugar composition. Ann Agric Sci 2019; 64(1): 29-37.
Hussain N, Kakoti B, Rudrapal M, et al. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Cordia dichotoma Forst. Int J Green Pharm 2020; 14: 265-73.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
Ā© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy